There is great potential for entrepreneurship. Evidence shows
that those who participated in entrepreneurship courses have
higher intentions to venture into new business than those
who participated in other courses (Galloway & Brown, 2002;
Ibrahim & Soufani, 2002; Klofsten, 2000). It augers well for
entrepreneurship, policymakers, economist and academics are
focused on economic development through entrepreneurship
(Gorman, Hanlon, & King, 1997). The realization is that entrepreneurs
not only bring new economic development but also
bring social justice (WEF). This research highlights the important
role of public and private sector partnership for nurturing
vocational training and entrepreneurship; synergizing the two;
more so in an environment which lacks funds for education,
education standards and welfare programs for the youth.
According to Government of Pakistan Statistics the unemployment
rate increased from 7.40% in 2009 to 15.20% in 2010.
The percentage change is 105.41% which is the worst in last
10 years. In Pakistan there are not enough jobs for the youth
nor have they been prepared to take the role of entrepreneurs.
The aim is to explore the role of Punjab Vocational Training Council
(PVTC) in the promotion of entrepreneurship education in
Punjab through Vocational Training Institutes and deal with the
concept of utilization of ‘Zakat' for the purpose of vocational
education as a model.
Research methodology used in this research is basically qualitative;
data has been collected through semi structured intensive
interviews from focus groups with students, parents of
students, instructors, managers, senior managers, principals,
staff, policy makers and administration. Case studies have been
written on some who presented an obvious evidence of negative
or positive impact of this initiative. Observation has been
another aspect of this research and documents analysis has
also been used for data collection and validation.
The focus of research is “phenomenological” in paradigm. This
means researcher is a part of the study and he is directly involved
in the research. Philosophically the ontology of the study
is that researchers have an interaction with the environment
which is being studied. Epistemologically; it is an interpretive
study where findings are not derived from statistical analysis
of data. Researcher gets an opportunity to participate in the
study, observe deeply the environment, subjects, theory and
religious edicts to consider a model for pilot testing and generalization.
Self-administrated questionnaire were developed
for conducting semi structured interview from target audience.
But these interviews were conducted in depth and also over a
longitudinal aspect to capture the development taking place.
Research groups were trained for conducting survey and interviews
from vocational training institutes. It took five months
in collecting data from city to city. Trained staff for research
visited also homes to conduct interviews from parents of the
students. These trained researchers visited different cities like
Multan, Shujabad, Muzaffargarh, Jhang, Haveli Bhadur Shah, Vehari, Lahore, Rawalpindi, Taxila, Faisalabad, Jaranwala, and
Gujrat. Researcher also participated in different activities of
PVTC like, conducting surveys and consultancies, leading to
teacher training program, curriculum development and assessment
process to write up case study. The strategies adopted
to collect data in these studies are “survey”, “case study”
and “grounded theory.” The interviews thus conducted were
converted into case studies that depicted the experience of
all stakeholders. The case studies also depicted the ethos and
the emotions behind the training and the utilization of Zakat
effectively as a successful pilot case on Vocational Education.
The data collected from semi structured interviews was concluded
by thematic analysis, an analyzing technique of writing
reports from data. Triangulation was done to reduce the data
bias and increase validity by comparing primary and secondary
PVTC and Entrepreneurship Education
According to Kailer there is no specific definition of entrepreneurship
education it's a developing discipline in its self.
Young (1997) says entrepreneurship education provides entrepreneurial
knowledge and imparts entrepreneurial skills.
Entrepreneurial knowledge and skills refer to knowledge, skills
and mind set of an individual that is used by him while starting
up new venture. Entrepreneurship education nurtures the
personality of the student by developing creativity, innovation,
risk taking personality and general personality traits that are
foundation of entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurship education
also teaches general entrepreneurial competencies which are
essential for starting up a business. These competencies are
needed for social and commercial entrepreneurship. In programs
that lead to setting up small business, it may be more
essential to provide those skills how to manage and start up
a small business. Vocational training and technical education
are interlinked with entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurial courses
should be offered in vocational institutes in combination with
vocational skills as part of curriculum. Globally educationalists
are observing growth and persistent demand from individuals
and governments to deliver entrepreneurship education (Atherton,
2004; Caird, 1990; Fayolle, 2004; Gibb, 1996; Hytti &
O'Gorman, 2004; Jack & Anderson, 1999; Katz, 2003; Klapper,
2004; Leffler & Svedberg, 2005; Plaschka & Welsch, 1990; Solomon,
Duffy, & Tarabishy 2002). Some quarters have claimed
that everybody in the dynamics of the contemporary economy
could be an entrepreneur (Casson 2000) or should be exposed
to entrepreneurship training and development (Gibb 2002a,
2002b). Governments having identified a link between entrepreneurship
and economic development and have been formulating
education policy for educational environments that
encourage an entrepreneurial spirit — see for instance work
by Stevenson & Lundström (2002) on Netherlands, Australia,
Finland and the UK. Many in political, educational and academic
circles have arrived at the conclusion that a country would
benefit if its people were more innovative and entrepreneurial
and to kick start this entrepreneurship at the vocational level
has been cited as a potent development factor. Therefore research
questions of the study is as follows:
The Research Questions in the light of literature review and
document analysis also supported by case studies
Q1- Can Entrepreneurship be evolved through the program
initiated by PVTC and be considered sustainable?
Solomon (1989) described that every person has an entrepreneurial
will. Schultz (1980) also has the same opinion that
every person has the capability to be an entrepreneur and
that capability can be developed through education. Holmes
and Schmitz (1990) concluded that, “various experiences have
already provided evidence that entrepreneurial skill can be developed
through practice, preparation, and education”. One of
the problems in understanding the idea of entrepreneurship is
the use of terminology. For example, the phrase “entrepreneurship
education” is generally used in the United States. But it
is infrequently used in the UK and only seldom used in Europe. “The aim of entrepreneurship education as explored by, Gibb
(1993: p.15), is to build up innovative behavior, ability and
characteristics with the improvement of learners‟. In the other
words it is cognition by developing the depth of understanding
about the particular fact being studied. It was observed by Cotton
(1991) that what helps to develop people with innovative
ideas. Schaper and Casimir (2007) observation lie within a broader
view in which entrepreneurship lessons should preferably
help produce such result by developing alumnae who are more
enthusiastic to start their own profitable venture. Pichler (June
2009) suggest that “Theory of Economic Development” by
Schumpeter (2008) should be taken into consideration while
making entrepreneurship policy of a country for economic and
social development. Stevenson and Lundstrom, 2002, state
that governments of states such as UK, Finland, Netherlands,
Denmark and Australia, have, defined a link between entrepreneurship
and economic development.
Here case studies from different countries have been cited as examples of successful entrepreneurship development through
technical and vocational education
UK: In England it is a constitutional obligation that school offers all learners with work related experiences. A non-statutory framework
sets out the recommended minimum practice for all young citizens. Entrepreneurship education is a key component, aiming
to support young people to be more entrepreneurial. So entrepreneurship education is not necessary, but practical learning is. The
Scottish Government's plan Entrepreneurship in Education — Firm to do well commits local establishment to offer entrepreneurship
learning and entrepreneurial experiences for all learners. These comprise opportunity for learners aged 14 plus to practice work oriented
learning associated with a related skill and to get suitable vocational education (Baron & Markman, 2000).
Cyprus: Entrepreneurship is built-in in the national curriculum for all Vocati̇onal Educati̇on Trainings (VETs). Nonprofessional entrepreneurship
programs or activities are accessible, but all courses contain entrepreneurial components according to requirement.
The National plan on Entrepreneurship in Education of 2010 intends to provide entrepreneurship training for all educators in VETs
Sweden: Currently there is an elective national course called ‘Projects and Entrepreneurship,' which is developed to support the compulsory
project work component of higher secondary programs. There are two other elective ‘Small and Medium Enterprise' courses
at higher secondary level. All these courses may or may not be accessible to learners depending on the module they are registered
in, and on where they study. Municipal Corporations run higher secondary education in Sweden, and there are regional differences
in the way they apply national programs (Seashore, 2004).
Estonia: Entrepreneurship and skills are offered in VETs in Estonia. Since 2006 entrepreneurial courses have been integrated in all
national curricula for technical programs. The least is 40 credit hours (1 educational week) in all program. The average is double as
long — 80 credit hours (2 educational weeks). Curriculum offer entrepreneurship courses of 120 credit hours (3 educational weeks)
or extra. The challenge for entrepreneurial courses in technical education is mainly related to teaching methods. There must be a
broad range of strategies to supplement instruction as a fundamental teaching instrument.
Germany: The entire structure of curriculum for vocational and technical education lay by the Kultusministerkonfernz (Standing .Conference
of Education Ministers) state that VET should give an insight into various forms of employment together with entrepreneurship,
to assist a career and life plan linking own-employment (Mattare, 2006b).
Hungary: Entrepreneurship is a necessary competency in the Hungarian national curricula. Currently, the Hungarian competency
based modular technical training system offers 423 courses. Some modules include entrepreneurship courses, so entrepreneurship
is offered in the most of programs. Where technical programs do not cover entrepreneurship, VET may teach it outside the required
curricula, and most of them do so (Allen, K., 2007).
Luxembourg: Entrepreneurship education is in most cases embedded in the school curricula; it can be presented in optional courses
organized in parallel by VET; or it can be offered as a co-curricular activity (i.e. outside the formal school hours). Mini-organizations are
used as a teaching instrument, and the government, together with the public and private sector, has set up a not for profit organization
to support entrepreneurship among VETs.
Lithuania: National framework policy on technical education describe that entrepreneurship must be included into all qualifications.
So VETs are developing the most generic entrepreneurial skills (http://ec.europa.eu/enterprise/policies/sme/files/smes/vocational/
These case studies have been cited to prove the effectiveness
or sustainability of the entrepreneurial aspect of education in
vocational education and are success stories of some countries.
These are replicable models).
Entrepreneurship as a new concept through education is a
new phenomenon in developing countries. Educated youth in
Pakistan also feel motivated to own their own business ventures
to satisfy both their needs but also to establish their own
independence. It is a concept that is fast gaining ground as it
brings about an awareness of new found freedom and financial
strength and independence. It however needs nurturing and
guidance and it has a lot to do with education.
Mission Statement of Punjab Vocational Training Council
The choice of the Mission Statement which is given below is
worth examination and hence an opinion survey was conducted
from the stakeholders. The responses are listed below:
“To alleviate poverty with Zakat funds by imparting demand
driven skill training to “Mustahqeen-e-zakat” at their door
step, involving private sector to enhance employability.”
In this case the values and the mission spell out a new culture
for a new organization. It fits in the objective to search
the purpose and the sustainability of such an organization
that probably does not carry the dead weight of traditional
i. The Mission is to utilize the Zakat fund for welfare of the society.
So PVTC strives for getting its allocated sum of Zakat
which it then distributes
ii. The Mission also undertakes to alleviate poverty.
iii. The Mission focuses on demand driven skills required at
any point in time-catering to the present and preparing for
iv. The Mission focus on the deserving of Zakat as per the criteria
for interpreting the Mustahqeen (deserving).
v. The Mission is to reach out to the needy at their doorstep
in every ‘Tehsil' (administrative jurisdiction like a county)
or ‘District'. So this spread is in the rural and the urban,
demanding large number of Vocational Training Institutions
vi. The Mission is to recognize that alone PVTC cannot fulfill
the task- it must involve the direct and indirect stake holders.
Hence it extends its hand to the private sector to
involve them in this mission.
A Perfect Example of Public-Private Partnership – Case
(An extract from the interview with Sajjid Naseer Khan)
PVTC was established under the PVTC Act 1998 to set up and
manage vocational training institutes (VTIs). The Chairman and
all Members of Council are voluntary and honorary members.
There are 130 VTIs that have a similar pattern of structure
in all of them. There are more than 230 members known as
Board of Management (BOMs), who represent various walks
of life from within the local community. These BOMs have
been empowered to select relevant trade, effectively manage
the institutions, monitor the quality of training, and facilitate
on-the-job training and also placement of the “graduates”
or “pass outs” from the VTIs. The other function is also to
identify and approve sites for VTIs.
Sajid Nasser the Chief Operating Officer in his interview
explained this very fact when he mentioned “a perfect
example of public-private partnership”. He also explained that
the organizational structure of the Board of Management at
the VTI level and the Council Members at the PVTC level is
the same. This enables the VTI to feel autonomous in a real
sense. It is empowered to run the VTI as it deems fit for its
own environment. It also enables them to choose a vocation
that has demand in the area to enforce the vocation that is
demand driven skill prevalent in its geographical location.
BOM also monitors this quality of teaching and appraises
the staff and the teachers. In a sense there is an element
of competition among the VTIs to see who is proving more
successful in creating demand for its graduates. In case things
go wrong PVTC is always there to guide all the VTIs and the
Board Members, but PVTC does not feel responsible for
these setbacks as they have empowered the BOMs to devise
strategies to overcome set-backs.
vii. And it is a part of the Mission of PVTC to enhance the employability
of those who undergo the skill development. It
also envisages that the employability of the skill worker is
possible on two accounts. First in that training should be
such that the market immediately accepts and the skilled
worker adapts to the work demand. And the second is that
the private sector is fully involved in all aspects of the development
so that it can as an employer immediately accept
the worker in his enterprise.
viii. That PVTC has also started the trend to create entrepreneurs
who are job providers not job seekers.
Creating Micro-entrepreneurs among the Vocational Trained
– a Case Study
One such experience has been the Vocational Training
Institutes (VTIs) which have also helped the deserving
students to fulfill this dream by giving them the one time
grant of Rs. 5000 at the end of their training program as a
policy measure adopted and implemented by PVTC. This
has helped them in initiating their micro-ventures where
they become micro-entrepreneurs. Some areas have shown
more receptivity to it than others. For example, in the south
zone of Punjab comprising of Multan, Muzaffargarh, Vehari,
Bahawalnagar, Bahawalpur and Rahim Yar Khan have the
highest ratio of self-employed. There are several reasons for
the high ratio of micro entrepreneurial ventures mentioned
Firstly, industry is scattered throughout the region therefore
self-employment is a better option rather than joining the
industry as they prefer being near their home town. Secondly,
this region is considered to be the home for traditional
handicraft, traditional embroidery and dress making, an age
old vocation. Thus providing a chance for the females to set up
their own ventures after they have gone on to complete their
training with the vocational training institute (VTIs). Thirdly,
the small farmers (lessee) who fall within the definition of
“mustahqeen a zakat” (those deserving of Islamic welfare
fund support) cannot afford to send their sons and daughters
for jobs away from home as everybody has to work on the
farms. For them the breakthrough came when training in the
agro-based courses was offered in the agricultural field e.g.
artificial insemination and tractor repair. Or they could set
up micro-ventures to provide services to the people of the
area in trouble shooting for electrical and home appliances,
motorcycle repair, auto repair, industrial machinery support,
and as machinist, tractors repair mechanics and so forth.
ix. The values of PVTC have evolved over time as the organization
has started commanding loyalty.
x. The Mission Statement allows for everyone to experience
xi. Finally the value culture creates leaders at every level and
the starting point is the VTI principal ship.
The Reflection of Value Culture as observed in the narration of
stakeholders during Interviews.
The independence of these statements lies in the fact that
interview were conducted miles apart in different town of
Punjab. The people are clear on what the VTI stands for. Hence
they contribute to the best of their capability at every level.
The opinions of some of the stakeholders are recorded below:
‘Yes, it has brought change in life, as they say ‘No money no
value', now I make clothes with my own choice and spend my
money as I wish too.' Bushra Kanwal, a graduate student of VTI
Faisalabad When some of the principals of VTI were asked why they chose
to join PVTC, they invariably responded by saying “At first I
joined this wanting to get a job. But soon I realized that what I
was doing was a great mission. Now I understand the underlying
values. This is my motivation” says Imran Khan Principal Burj
Attari VTI. The rules and norms in PVTC and VTIs continue to
evolve, with varying degree, as everyone in the organization
gains experience, grows, changes, and matures. In fact, he
feels the conviction and wants to outdo the other in his noble
mission of welfare and development.
“It is a promise to teach how to ‘fish' not a promise to give
(dole out) at the end of the day a ‘fish'”. In the words of Saeed
Khan CEO “The concept is to shift from ‘dole out' to payroll”.
The Future of PVTC – a Case Study
Nearly a decade down the road PVTC had to rethink its role.
Sajid, who had seen PVTC through the initial 10 years, had
to consider, how to reorganize or develop new strategies. He
had to think what the way ahead is. On answering a question
about the comparison between prevailing environments
of VTI with the past, Mr. Jaffar, teacher textile designing, had
to say. In 1999 when this VTI was established there was no
market response. Employers were reluctant to hire these
graduates as they thought that they were inexperienced and
lacked practical experience. But today parties are satisfied
with these young skilled professionals”. Now their ‘graduates'
are not only working in the local industry but also at different
VTI's” e.g. Sialkot, Sahiwal, Mandibahudin, Toba Tek Singh
From a more institutional perspective and from the point of
view of industry analysis, it was observed that the objectives
were achievable and measurable. Seen from the planning
perspective the current strategy seemed to be to consolidate.
In the words of Sajid Khan “Now our emphasis is quality
improvement and to consolidate”. But Sajid had realized that
the PVTC had reached a point that it was not enough to rely
on the local expertise for future growth and capacity building.
If he was to make his organization competent and capable
to bring out world class tradesmen, he would have to seek
international support. It was also the question of producing
empowered entrepreneurs competent to run successful
McMullan & Long (1987) argue that entrepreneurship education
should incorporate skill-building courses such as negotiation,
leadership and creative thinking and exposure to technological
innovation and new product development. Dynamic and
relevant curriculum and pedagogy are needed to ensure the
health and strength of an institution.
Vocational Training Institutes are offering programs to students
which are skill oriented. Therefore research question regarding
effectiveness of curriculum for entrepreneurship development
among students is; Q2- What kind of educational program would PVTC have to
adopt for the promotion of entrepreneurship among the Vocationally
Sajid Naseer Khan – a Case Study
In 1998 there were no models to adopt, no paths to follow,
the ‘founders' were confronted with their biggest challenge.
It was like being thrown into a swimming pool and asked to
swim across. What kind of institution should be created?
What trades should be selected for training? What kind of
training to provide? Who will design the training program?
Who will conduct the training? Where will these trainees go
for On-the-Job Training? Where will the classes be housed?
How much of a spread is required to have an impact? How
to deal with Ministry of Religious Affairs for Zakatand how to
make in-roads into bureaucracy?
Sajid Naseer, the first General Manager since its inception had
the support of the founder Chairman Sikandar Khan. The two,
in the beginning, worked relentlessly to lay the fundamental
concept of the organization. They moved quickly to take the
support of the Ministry and the Chief Minister. At the same
time the Board of Management of PVTC, which had been
constituted, was also a very helpful institution from the very
The philosophy of a value based organization and a learning
organization was the leadership style of these two leaders.
PVTC had become a learning organization by virtue of the
fact that it had not dogmatically adopted the professions and
trades that have been offered by the vocational institutes of
the past. It believed in adopting those trades that were demand
driven. Hence there was room for learning, unlearning
and readopting. At the first VTI, which was in Township
Lahore, in 1998, they had selected to train drivers of vehicles.
This vocation very soon faded out as the demand for it did
not exist. The evidence to support the philosophy comes from
the staff, employees, students and other stakeholders. The indepth
interviews offered insight into the philosophy.
Therefore PVTC was flexible and adaptable to the market
needs right from the start. Hence whatever vocation or
trade that was selected had to be demand driven. A lot of
consultation would take place between the Board members
and with the prospective employer. Even, the students who
had joined were also asked to give their opinion abut the
vocation that was in demand in the market. All this was a
process of learning and adapting to the market needs.
Developing Demand-Driven Training Programs for VTI – a
Punjab is the largest province of Pakistan having a population
of 79,429,700 which is 56.5% of entire population of Pakistan.
It is also the most densely populated province with a density
of 386.8 people per square kilometer, whereas the total area
of Punjab is 205,345 square kilometer.
In a province of this size there has to be complicated problems
because of population growth, such as: - Pressure on big
cities, pressure on educational institutions, pressure on transport,
and pressure on employment. There are also numerous
trades that are required as a support system for a growing society.
However, Pakistan does not have a guild system where
various vocational skills are taught to create skilled labor.
Therefore, Pakistan which has always faced a problem of
education, has constantly struggled to educate and train its
manpower. In the 1970's, there was enormous pressure to
train vocational skills as Middle East and Gulf Countries were
absorbing Pakistan skilled labor as they were opening up and
expanding cities and setting up industries. It was the period
of oil boom. Pakistani skilled labor force was in demand. But
soon the vocational skill program collapsed as there was no
formal infrastructure to support its training. Moreover, it was
totally in the hands of the public sector and there are huge inherent
problems in a developing countries public sector. Illegal
demands were placed on the students seeking vocational
training. The tradition of training which was already week and
out dated almost vanished because of lack of financial support
and teaching staff.
Consequently, the need was always felt to have vocational
training institutions to upgrade the skills and to certify the
standards. Therefore, the creation of PVTC was a need felt to
have an institution to provide quality training in various areas.
Dr. Saima Naeem, VTI Sheikhupura says that “education that
deals with professionalism is called Vocational Education and
technical education falls under this form of education. It is
that branch of learning and teaching that falls in the field
of trade, commerce, agriculture, technology, medicine, engineering
etc. Technical education provides technicians for
all types of trade. She goes on to say “that the progress of a
country depends upon its industrialization without which a
handsome economy would not be possible.” Hence preparing
people to do their jobs becomes a function of the government
and economy managers in a State. Dugan Laird says in
his book ‘Approaches to Training and Development', “Before
people can perform their tasks properly, they must master
the special technology used. This means acquisition of knowledge
and skill”. This is precisely what PVTC is aiming for. “Thus
training may be defined as an experience, a discipline, or a
regimen which causes people to acquire new, predetermined
behaviors”. He further goes on to say, “To perform their assigned
tasks properly, all workers need to master and apply
the unique technology governing their tasks. So here is where
they are ready for responsibilities beyond their initial assignment”
or status in life.
Saeed Khan very proudly mentions that “we have a Quality
Oriented Training System”, he continued to explain that by
system he means a whole range of activities “such as performance
appraisal of trainers and principal, training cycle,
curriculum designing, selection and acquisition of equipment
and computers. The objective of the training cycle was to satisfy
market and employer needs.” But he explained with emphasis
that in the beginning it was not all that easy as it may
seem today. “We did not know this. So we had to develop
our own curriculum or syllabus for our training programs”.
He says that we had to search for information on the internet.
At that moment in time, they just had a few teachers or
trainers and one principal. According to Sajid Naseer, “At that
time we had some engineers whom we had hired for teaching
our programs. These were asked to prepare the curriculum.'
Hence this is where the danger lies. Unless professionals design
standardized vocational training program according to
international standards-Pakistan will suffer.
Once the curriculum was in place, Saeed Khan went on to explain
that ‘we had to then decide what should be the entrance
criteria of a student for a particular trade”. He explained that
they questioned themselves “what job requirements are to
be met?” ‘What computer specs to be adopted?”
“What skills to develop, what knowledge to be included?
For example, what does the plumber needs to know? What
should be the level of his education so that he can read the
drawing – this was the knowledge element in this trade.”
Thus a standard format of the curriculum was developed for
each trade. Each student in our program is entitled to get a
manual. The manual also specifies the equipment.”
Eventually, each teacher is required to develop lesson plans
for each subject, each day. In this way the teaching becomes
affective and purposeful. With regards to the teacher the
statement by the top management was unanimous. They
consider all “teachers as assets and the selection is on merit.”
The first step taken after recruiting a teacher is to arrange an
orientation of PVTC/VTI so as to acquaint the teacher to the
work culture. The teachers are also required to go through
regular training program for Trainers and for Principals. However
on verification it was found that it was an irregular practice.
Moreover there were no benchmarks to adopt. These
were different levels of a program at different VTIs. It seemed
proper to question one self, but as amateurs it was not possible
to fulfill the requirement. For the first time Sajid felt that
time had come to seek help. But the question was how and
Based on its in-house capabilities PVTC developed various
courses and developed a training cycle for its VTIs. This development
process served a very positive purpose and PVTC has
grown over the years in repute and size. The training process
has been recorded in one of the documents of PVTC. It is being
reproduced below (Figure 1):
Objective evaluation of trainees is done at the end of training
program and certificates are issued. Finally, to complete the
training cycle, feedback is received from the end users; that is,
employers, to rectify any deficiencies and induct improvements
in the training program. So far thirty eight curricula of different
trades had been developed and were in use at various VTIs
A list of vocations that were taught at VTIs of PVTC is given
below (Table 1). However it was difficult to establish that this
wide array of vocation could all be taught. There was hardly
any evidence to support this and this was the cause of concern.
Theoretically there was awareness of designing concepts of
training programs. But expertise within PVTC was not in evidence.
Hence this was a major drawback that became evident
as PVTC grew and demand for new vocations also grew. It
would have to seek external Technical Assistance Support for
properly designed programs to be taught. Training was after all
the blood line of PVTC.
Third Research Question
Aim of our study is also to deal with the concept of utilization
of “Zaka't” for the purpose of supporting institutions of vocational
education. Many scholars now hold the view that allows
“Zakat” funds to be used- for the education of the people, for
public works, and for any other pressing need of the Muslim
community (al-Qaradawi, 2002:2:136-145; Sabiq, 1990:2:463-
However before we go direct into the question of utilizing
Zakat for the purpose of vocational education, we must understood
the concept of Zakat in Islam and the development of
the Law of Zakat over the 1400 years. It is essential to examine
the Islamic Jurist work on the subject and the interpretation of
Prophetic tradition and the Quran.
In the “Islamic Law of Obligatory Alms (Zakat) (2011) compiled
as a manual by the UK Centre for Legal Education; The Authors,
Professor Javaid Rehman, Aibek Ahmedou and Editor Shaheen Mansoor, have cited numerous sources of Law as reference of
the evaluating of the Law pertaining to Zakat. This Manual gives
the background of the origins and sources of Islamic Law. They
have also dilated on Zakat law and basic concepts of Zakat. In
doing so they have given the history, the theory of Zakat and
the understanding of the classical and modern form of Law.
The heart of this obligatory law is that Zakat, which may be
understood as a system of taxation, is more them that. It is a
“moral, spiritual and legal obligation for Muslims”.
This manual has emphasized that it is essential to familiarize
the researcher on the subject, with a variety of text written
by both the Muslims Scholars as well as non-Muslims Scholars
because analytical material compiled by non-Muslims are essential
to develop the understanding of Zakat Law, how it has
evolved through 1400 years of Islamic History (p-6) (Manual
2011 UK CLE).
The manual has also defined Zakat meaning to ‘purify', “foster”
or “grow”. It is one of the central pillar of Islam. In the
legal context it is an obligation on every Muslim to pay 2.5%
of the income he earns in a calendar year. And it is not a charity.
Though it has parallel in Christianity and Judaism yet it is
a separate legal obligation in Islam but not in the other two
religions. Hence, it has a spiritual and economic effect. It has
been mentioned on 32 occasions in isolation and 82 occasions
in conjunction with other pillars in the Quran. The central verse wherein it has been cited in Quran is the 2:43. But there is also
an indication as to whom Zakat is to be allocated to in the verse
9:60 which reads:
“Alms are for the poor and the needy, and those employed to
administer the (funds); for those whose hearts have been (recently)
reconciled (to Truth); for those in bondage and in debt;
in the cause of God, and for the way farer; (thus is it) ordained
by God, and God is full of knowledge and wisdom”.
On analysis we realize the verse classifies the recipient of Zakat
as follows (1) the poor, (2) the needy, (3) the administrator of
Zakat, (4) those who converted to Islam recently or are going
to convert, (5) prisoners captured in the war, (6) debtors, (7)
soldiers who fought for the state or scholars who study and (8)
As the Quran does not expand on details of the recipients, the
responsibility fell on the shoulders of Muslim Jurist. However
the major contribution was made by the Islamic Jurists after
the Ninth century (Manual 2011 UK CLE).
The Zakat Ordinance 1980 of Pakistan is cited as a good example
of modern legislation. This law devised a national mechanism
to collect Zakat and it specified that funds obtained as Zakat
were to be mainly used for social welfare under the Hanafi
interpretation but by applying the Quranic and Prophetic rules.
The other example that can be cited is the constitution of Saudi
Arabia which lays down “Zakat is to be levied and paid to legitimate recipient” (Article 21). But it varies from country to
country in terms of its legality.
Research question regarding this aspect of our study is;
Q3- Can a model' of utilization of ‘Zakat' be developed for being
used by institution for development of entrepreneurs and
tradesmen produced by VTIs.
It is part of the belief of Islam that Zakat is ordained and is one
of the 5 pillars of Islam. It is mandatory to pay Zakat- Percentage
of which is determined by Islam. It is a welfare fund for those
who fall in the description of “Mustahqeen” (deserving). It
is also a part of the belief that paying the Zakat un-encumbers
the earning and increases the earning manifold. Each Muslim
does his own calculation on the basis of percentage of his assets
and pays voluntarily. Just the thought of having fulfilled
the “Commandments” is satisfying and exhilarating. It has a
Zakat has always been a very emotional subject. It is ordained
through the Quran that every Muslim will pay Zakat and create
a welfare fund to support the poorest of the poor and the deserving
in the society. The rich have a collective responsibility
of taking care of the poor and disadvantaged groups. There is
no backing out of this obligation for the Sunni Muslim. Hence,
any misuse of the fund is condemnation by the society and
damnation in the hereafter.
Zakat as the Inspirational Factor – a Case Study
On the question what made you join PVTC, Imran says, “I responded
when I read the advertisement in the newspaper
about the post of principals in VTIs, I thought I must apply
and I succeeded”. He said that he wanted to be a part of the
noble cause “Akharat bhee ban jayee”, (ensuring my life here
after). He quoted Wasif Ali Wasif, an intellectual scholar who
said” if you work with zest and passion, it becomes “Ebaadat”,
(religious devotion) and he believes in that.
Ahmed Imran Principal VTI Civil Lines Faisalabad, considers it
sadqaee jariha (continuous charity) if his services can provide
placement and jobs to deserving students.
Zakat: The Philosophy and the Religious Factor
The philosophy of Zakat and how it is utilized in the PVTC
and the process of utilization has to be in accordance to the
interpretation of the transaction and is known as ‘Tamleeq'-
the legitimate transfer of ownership. The Model given below is
based on a process developed at PVTC.
However, it has now been modified and developed as a Model
by the authors for understanding how Zakat can be utilized for
educational purpose (Figure 2).
Click Here to Zoom
|Figure 2: Zakat Fund Utilization Model for Vocational Training (Model developed by Iqbal M. Khan).
Poverty is a socio-political product of the systems we live in.
It is a problem that has never been successfully addressed.
“Consequently it is important to realize, laborers and workers,
artisans, and craftsmen, tillers and peasants are as indispen sable as scholars and thinkers, savants and sages, leaders and
rulers”, Ghamidi in ‘The Economic Law of Islam'. Undoubtedly,
mismanagement and misallocation of funds are the two main
causes of poverty in countries like Pakistan. Poverty it has been
seen cannot be solved by providing everyone with soft loans
or micro credits. There was a need to re-think strategy for poverty
alleviation. Where is the potential to overcome poverty?
Hence, the ‘founders' realized after deep consideration that
poverty alleviation strategy cannot be alienated from the ideological
moorings. Solution to the poverty problem lies in the
Islamic economic way of life.
The Islamic way of poverty alleviation focuses on developing
human resource (tadreeb) and teaching gainful skill and providing
relevant job opportunity. The Government in power
in Punjab in the second half of the 1990's felt that the Zakat
and Ushr Ordinance which was promulgated in 1980 could
be seriously considered for the vocational training and skill
development. The following government did not hesitate to
continue with the good work and facilitated its working. This
thinking prevails across many societies in the Muslim Countries.
What is important is to under-stand the concept of Islamic
Philosophy of Economic Equality (Adal). The rich must support
the economically disadvantaged groups. It is as obligatory as
the prayers in Islam. The modern economists consider Zakat as
the chief source of maintaining economic welfare for economic
development. But where does Zakat come from? How is it collected?
How Zakat is instituted? Were some of the questions
needing answers. Therefore, the basic tenets of Zakat and the
obligation of Zakat are:
i. It is obligatory upon a Muslim to pay Zakat according to the
way prescribed by the Shari'ah from his wealth, produce
and livestock, if he is liable to it. “Zakat is only for the poor
and the needy” Al-Quran (60:9).
ii. After the salah (the prayer), it is the second most important
worship ritual in Islam. It has been regarded as a ritual of
worship. This has been made evident by the Quran as the
second manifestation of faith.
iii. Zakat is a share imposed on one's wealth and has been reserved
for Allah. We have been directed to give this money
to our rulers so that the needs of the state can be met.
iv. There is evidence in all the major religions regarding the
obligation to pay Zakat as a commandment of God (Economic
Law of Islam).The objective of zakat can be determined
from its very name. The root of the word zakat in Arabic
has two meanings: ‘purity' and ‘growth'. It thus means the
wealth given in the way of Allah to obtain purity of heart.
v. Zakat is the minimum financial obligation on a person of
spending his wealth in the way of God. Merely paying zakat
is enough to attach a person's heart with the Almighty.
Text taken from ‘Economic Law of Islam' by Ghamidi
The philosophy behind the system of zakat is to assist the deserving
poor ‘Mustahqeen”. As a traditional religious institution
Zakat, involves both the payment and the distribution of an alms (tax) given by Muslims who enjoy some surplus to certain
kinds of deserving poor Muslims. The Muslim religious law
(Hanfi School) stipulates that zakat is to be paid once a year on
wealth held for more than one year. The Zakat rate is 2.5% on
wealth annually and Ushr is 5 percent tax paid on the produce
of land, not on the value of the land itself. Zakat and Ushr are
paid to groups as specified in Quran, such as the poor, the needy,
widows, orphans, the disabled, the students of traditional
religious schools and the collectors and distributors of Zakat.
For a Muslim, paying Zakat is mandatory just as important
as his prayers, but he has the right to question its utilization.
The obligation to do so is inherent in the fact that Islam lays
down the religious criteria. Hence, the visibility of its proper
utilization makes it easy for the Muslim to contribute, his share
of Zakat for onward distribution to disadvantaged groups
as specified in the Quran. Sajid Khan was of the opinion that
PVTC accounts should be on the website of the PVTC for the
information of the public at large. He was expressing the need
for transparency of distribution of the Zakat funds and its utilization.
This level of confidence was fully supported by his CEO
Saeed Khan who said “Our accounts are audited by Ferguson
Chartered Accountants, a highly reputable firm. And a unique
achievement of PVTC is that we have also the Quality Audit”.
The Non-Mustahq – a Case Study
Despite this there is a stray case of utilizing Zakat by a
‘non-mustahq'. But the allure of the VTI and the training of
professional skill is strong. We came across this interesting
case and its honesty has its own value. It's narrated by
Mubashir brother of Ms. Mubashira, a graduate of VTI Jhang.
Belongs to a family of 8 with only two bread earners. “We are
not zakat takers but I knew that the education of the VTI is very
good and authenticated, the environment of study is also very
good especially for girls and their teachers are also very good.
Therefore my family and I wanted my sister to study from
here. For this reason we came repeatedly to VTI for admission
and after one year my sister got admission. We know we are
not deserving, Alhamdolillah, but there's no other reputable
institution for girls to study for the vocational education. We
gave the Rs.500 per month to our poor neighbors and will also
give Rs.5000 at the end of the course to some deserving of
zakat money. I admit that we used this support for my sister's
future but we are not keeping the money to ourselves but
giving to righteous deserving person.
We are not educating our sister for doing a job but for her
own betterment. If she does not get a job she can open her
own tuition center as self-employed option.
This research was one of the most comprehensive ever undertaken
in the area of vocational training and entrepreneurship.
The observation is as follows:
There is a lack of research on vocational training and entrepreneurship
education. So this research endeavored to add literature
on vocational training and entrepreneurship education.
The study also explains the concept and philosophy of ‘Zakat'.
It follows the progress of this institution and records the various
successes such as the role model of a public-private ownership,
a value based organization, a learning organization, an entrepreneurial
organization and a highly innovative institution.
The research finds out that pedagogical skills offered by PVTC's
are not effective for entrepreneurial potential development
among students. In response to our first two research question
is evidence of successful programs run in other countries and
sustainability and it also has determined the nature of these
Teaching approaches appear to be incorporate and VTI lectures
do not appear to have relevant entrepreneurial skills, knowledge
or training. There are serious short comings in the VTI
curriculums and absolutely no entrepreneurship education
within PVTC. Hence, PVTC would now need a serious capacity
enhancement to meet the need of entrepreneurship education
and its pedagogy. If the curriculum is now designed and
upgraded to the contemporary requirement, this program will
be consider sustainable. There is evidence to suggest that it
has aroused considerable interest in this education, skill and
qualification. The Zakat Fund Utilization Model has stood the
best of time in Punjab for PVTC. The debate it had generated
has finally been laid to rest. The edicts by the religious scholars
have appeased the criticism. Hence, it has now developed into
a Model that can be replicated.
Research is required for entrepreneurial curriculum development
and training of teaching methodologies to PVTCs' instructors,
students and practitioners. Both PVTC's success and
challenges present important lessons that are of interest and
use to others seeking to unleash the potential of public-private
alliances, and to provide innovative and sustainable solutions
to address entrepreneurship for elimination of unemployment.
This study further opens the horizons of future research on the
topic of pedagogical skills of technical education for entrepreneurship
development among the VTIs.