2015, Cilt 5, Sayı 1, Sayfa(lar) 032-040
The Interplay Among Academic Self-Concept, Self-Efficacy, Self-Regulation and Academic Achievement of Higher Education L2 Learners
Karabük University, Faculty of Letters, Department of Western Languages and Literatures, Karabük, Turkey
Keywords: Self-concept, Self-efficacy, Self-regulation, Academic achievement
Self-concept, self efficacy, and self-regulation are three important factors that predict the success of L2 learners to a large extent. Therefore,
the present study was designed to measure the academic self-concept, self efficacy, self-regulation level of higher education students in
relation to academic achievement and self-evaluation and secondarily to investigate the correlation between academic self-concept, selfefficacy,
and self-regulation. In the present study, academic self-concept was conceptualized as comprising of two main components:
academic confidence and academic effort. The participants of the study are 130 higher education EFL (English as a Foreign Language)
learners enrolled in English Language and Literature department. Liu and Wang's (2005) academic self-concept scale was used as the main
data collection tool. It consists of two sub-scales; academic confidence and academic effort scales. A four-item questionnaire was formed
by examining the literature in order to measure self-efficacy and Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ), developed by
Pintrich et al. (1991), was used to measure self-regulation beliefs of students. Descriptive, variance, correlation and regression analyses
were conducted in order to analyze the data. The results indicated that higher education Turkish EFL learners have a moderate-to-high
level of self-concept, self-efficacy, self-regulation, and self-evaluation. High achieving students were found to have higher levels of selfregulation,
self-evaluation and academic confidence. Correlation analysis indicated that all of the variables of the study are highly correlated
with academic success and regression analysis revealed that self-efficacy was the most important predictor of academic success.
In general, academic self-concept is defined as students'
perceptions about their levels of competencies within an
academic realm (Ferla et al., 2009; Wigfield & Eccles, 2000).
Bracken (2009) defines academic self-concept as “how a person
feels about himself or herself within a school or academic
setting, or in relation to a student‘s academic progress” (p.
92). Similarly, some researchers define academic self-concept
as the degree of an individual's perception of his or her own
proficiency in academic subjects (Bong and Skaalvik, 2003;
DiPernaand Elliott, 1999). That is to say, self-concept is a term
that denotes the way how students feel about themselves as
learners (Guay et al., 2003) and a collection of views about
oneself regarding specific academic abilities and perceptions
(Trautwein et al., 2006).
Bandura (1995, p.2) defines self-efficacy as “the belief in
one's capabilities to organize and execute the courses of
action required to manage prospective situations.” It refers to
students' beliefs as regards their ability to perform a particular
task and it is considered among the expectancy components
of motivation (Pintrich and De Groot, 1990). It is among the
most frequently studied constructs in the field of language
education. Students with a high level of self-efficacy have a
high level of self-confidence and they believe that they can
organize the learning environment conducive to their own
learning (Bandura, 1986). To sum up, self-efficacy can be said
to refer to an individual's belief in his or her ability to succeed
in a particular situation.
Self-evaluation is one of the crucial phases in which individuals
evaluate their personal effectiveness in relation to specific
learning tasks. It is generally believed that when students can
evaluate their own learning, they become more self-regulated
learners. Self-evaluation is essential in guiding the learning
process on the part of students. According to Zimmerman
(2004), teachers can boost students' self-evaluation by guiding
them on how to monitor their learning objectives and strategy
well and then make the necessary modifications in these
Self-regulation is defined as the process where learners take the
initiative with or without the guidance of others in identifying
their own needs, formulating goals, exploring resources,
focusing on appropriate learning strategies and evaluating
learning outcomes. Self-regulation indicates initiation of
action on the part of the learner and includes goal setting and
regulating one's efforts to realize desired aims, self-monitoring
(meta-cognition), time management, and management of
physical and social environment (Zimmerman and Risemberg
1997). It is a central concept in social cognitive theory and refers
to an individual's use of three cognitive processes toward goal
attainment: self-monitoring, self-judgment and self-reaction
(Bandura, 1986). In Zimmerman's terms, self-regulated
learning is a process in which students resort to self-regulatory
skills like self-assessing, self-directing, controlling and adjusting
in order to obtain knowledge (Zimmerman, 1989).
Research on self-concept has attracted the attention of many
researchers in different disciplines due to the fact that some
studies found a link between self-concept and academic
achievement (Liu, 2010). There are some studies that point
to the correlation between self-concept and academic
achievement (Choi, 2005; Liu, 2008). Recently, Guay, et al.
(2010) found that students who had higher level of academic
self-concept had higher grades because their academic selfconcept
enabled them to be more autonomous and motivated.
The close link between academic self-concept and academic
achievement was also reported in recent studies (Archana &
Chamudeswari, 2013; Raju, 2013; Sikhwara, 2014).
The relationship between academic achievement and selfregulation
was also studied by Barnard-Brak et al. (2010). They
found associations between academic achievement levels and
self-regulated learning profiles. Cheng (2011) investigated
the relationship between students' self-regulation ability and
their learning performance. The results showed that students'
learning motivation, goal setting, action control and learning
strategies played a significant role in their learning performance.
Demirel and Turan (2010) carried out a study on the medical
students' self-regulated learning skills and differences between
self-regulated learning skills and achievement. Results of
the study suggested that there were statistically significant
differences between students' self-regulated learning skills and
their achievement levels. Successful students were found to
have more self-regulated learning skills in all stages of learning.
As stated above, self-efficacy refers to beliefs that an individual
holds in regard to his/her ability to perform a specific task. Selfefficacy
beliefs can influence an individual's effort exerted in the
attainment of a task or one's academic achievement (Bandura,
1997). There are a number of studies that point to the relation
between self-efficacy and academic achievement (Pintrich and
Schunk, 2002; Mills et al., 2007; Kitsantasand Zimmerman,
2009). In a study, Ching (2002) found that students with high
self-efficacy beliefs were confident about what they could
achieve, set themselves challenges and were committed to
achieving them, and worked harder to avoid failure.
There is also a bulk of research that discovered the relationship
between self-efficacy beliefs and course grades (Mills et al.,
2007; Hsieh & Schallert, 2008), proficiency in reading (Mills et
al., 2006; Mills et al., 2007), and listening (Mills et al., 2006;
Magogwe and Oliver, 2007; Tılfarlıoglu and Çiftçi, 2011). Almost
all of these studies found positive correlations between selfefficacy
and the stated areas. On the other hand, according to
Wang and Pape (2007), factors like past experience, interest,
attitudes toward English language, social persuasion, task
difficulty, and social and cultural setting to be important for
determining learners' self-efficacy level.
A thorough analysis of the relation between self-efficacy and a
number of variables in EFL contexts was carried out by Raoofi
et al. (2013). This analysis covers the years from 2003 to 2012.
Among the articles they worked on a bulk of them focused on
self-efficacy and EFL performance or grade levels (i.e. Mills et
al.,2007; Hsieh and Schallert, 2008) or proficiency in reading (i.e. Mills et al., 2006; Mills et al., 2007), listening (i.e. Mills et
al., 2006; Magogwe & Oliver, 2007; Tılfarlıoglu & Ciftçi, 2011).
The results of these studies indicated that there is a positive
relationship between self-efficacy and performance.
Literature abounds in studies that cover self-concept, selfefficacy,
or self-regulation separately based on a number of
different variables. However, there are few studies that focus
on the relation among them. This study attempts to investigate
them in relation to each other and in relation to their influence
on students' academic achievement. Therefore, the present
study aims to answer the following questions:
1. What are the perceptions of higher education EFL students
in terms of academic confidence, academic effort, selfefficacy,
self-regulation, and self-evaluation?
2. Are there differences between high achieving and low
achieving higher education EFL students in terms of their
perceptions in academic confidence, academic effort, selfefficacy,
self-regulation, and self-evaluation?
3. Is there any correlation among academic confidence,
academic effort, self-efficacy, self-regulation and selfevaluation
and academic success and which of these
variables are predictors of academic achievement?
The participants of the study are 130 higher education
EFL learners enrolled in English Language and Literature
department. The number of female students is 96 (67.1%),
and the number of male students is 34 (23.8%). The number
of regular education students is 69 (48.3%) and the number
of evening education students is 56 (36.2%). In terms of grade
level, the number of 2nd grade students is 60 (42.00%), 3rd grade
students is 64 (44.8%), and 4th grade students is 3 (2.1%). The
age range of the students ranges from 19 to 25.
Data Collection Tool
In order to collect data, the original academic self-concept
scale developed by Liu and Wang (2005), was used. The scale
has two sub scales; (a) academic confidence, and (b) academic
effort, each with 10 items to collect the students' academic selfconcept
information. The items included both negatively and
positively worded items to avoid the same answers from the
students. Both academic confidence and academic effort items were mixed in the scale; academic confidence items taking odd
numbers (1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15, 17, 19), while academic effort
items taking even numbers (2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20). In
the same questionnaire, the students were requested to report
their current Cumulative Grade Point Average (CGPA) which
was used as a measure of their academic achievement. In order
to measure self-efficacy beliefs of the participants, a 4-item
questionnaire was prepared by researching the literature.
Self-regulation level of the participants was measured by the
self-regulation sub-component of Motivated Strategies for
Learning Strategies (MSLQ), which was developed by Pintrich
et al. (1991). MSLQ is a comprehensive 81-item self-report
instrument designed to measure college students' motivational
orientations and their use of different learning strategies,
one of which is self-regulation. The MSLQ uses a five-point
Likert scale ranging from 1 (labeled “strongly disagree”) to 5
(labeled “strongly agree”) with no specific labels for the other
response categories. Finally, the level of self-evaluation of the
participants was measured by asking learners how they rated
themselves in four language areas.
The present study is a quantitative study based on survey
method. The study employs descriptive and correlation
In the first place, descriptive analyses were conducted in order
to measure the general level of the participants in terms of
the variables of the study. As a next step, variance analysis
(ANOVA) was conducted in order to compare students in terms
of their duration of study and variables of the study. Then, the
data were subjected to correlation and regression analysis in
order to see the relationships among the variables of the study
and to determine the predictor of academic success.
|Research question 1: What are the perceptions of higher
education students in terms of: academic confidence, academic
effort, self-efficacy, self-regulation, and self-evaluation?
In order to get a complete picture of the level of higher
education EFL learners in terms of academic self-concept, selfefficacy,
self-regulation, academic confidence, academic effort,
and self-evaluation, descriptive statistics were applied. The
results are given in the table below.
The results indicate that the participants have a moderate level
of self-efficacy (M=14.03), self-regulation (M=17.73), academic
confidence (M=31.96), academic effort (M=33.71), and selfevaluation
To further analyze the level of self-efficacy, self-regulation,
academic confidence, academic effort and self-evaluation, the
results of 130 participants were grouped as low, moderate, and
high. In order to do this, the maximum values were divided into
three so that the cut-off points could be determined. The cutoff
points for the variables are as follows: self-efficacy (low=0-
6, moderate=7-13, and high=14-20), self-regulation (low=0-8,
moderate=9-17, high=18-25), academic confidence (low=0-16,
moderate=17-33, high=34-50), academic effort (low=0-16,
moderate=17-33, high=34-50), and self-evaluation (low=0-10,
moderate=11-20, high=21-30). The results are presented in
According to the results, 43% of the participants have a
moderate level of self-efficacy, 42.30% of the participants have
a moderate level of self-efficacy, and 14.61% of the participants
have a low level of self-efficacy. Depending on the results, we
can say that the participants have a moderate to high level
of self-efficacy. In terms of self-regulation, we can see in the
table that 48.6% of the participants have a high level of selfregulation
and 47.69% of the participants have a moderate
level of self-regulation. We can say that the participants have
a moderate to high level of self-regulation. As for academic
confidence, which is one of the components of academic
self-concept, 33.81% of the participants have a high level of
academic confidence and 65.38% of the participants have a
moderate level of academic confidence. These results make it
clear that the participants have a moderate level of academic
confidence. As for the academic effort, the Table 2 indicates
that 50.76% of the participants have a high level of academic
effort and 48.46% of the participants have a moderate level of academic effort. We can understand that the participants
have a high level of academic effort. Finally, 43.84% of the
participants have a high level of self-evaluation and 55.38% of
the participants have a moderate level of self-evaluation. We
can understand that the level of self-evaluation is moderate.
We can understand from Table 3 that the students have a
moderate to high level of medium scores for the items. We
can say that a moderate number of the participants expect
to do well in their courses (m=3.45), and a moderate number
of them believe that they know better than their classmates
(m=3.37). A moderate number of the participants believe that
they can understand what is taught in lessons (m=3.70).
, we can see that most of the
participants are aware of the material that they are studying
(m=3.75), know the things that they will need prior to the
lesson (m=4.11), stop and go over the study material at
intervals (m=3.47), and study to get a high mark even when
they do not like the subject matter (m=3.52).
The descriptive statistics about academic self-concept are
presented in Table 5. As we can understand from the table, a
huge number of students work to get high marks (m=4.44). A
moderate number of students can follow lectures (m=3.69),
can help their classmates (m=3.61), believe that they are
better than their classmates in most courses (m=3.49), and
believe that they are good at the courses (m=3.25).
The results pertaining to academic effort are presented in
Table 6. The table demonstrates that a huge number of the
participants do their best to pass all the courses in the stated
semester (m=4.13). A moderate number of the participants
stated that they pay attention to lectures (m=3.85), study hard
for their tests (m=3.78), do not give up in the face of difficulties
(m=3.80), and are usually interested in lectures (m=3.38).
Research question 2: Are there differences between high
achieving and low achieving higher education EFL students in
terms of their perceptions in academic confidence, academic
effort, self-efficacy, self-regulation, and self-evaluation?
In order to determine whether there are statistically
significant differences between achievement levels in terms
of the variables of the study, the group was divided into two
achievement groups: low achieving group and high achieving
group. The average grades of the students was calculated and the median value was found. Students were then grouped as
low achieving or high achieving based on the value of median
(2.45). Then, a T-test was conducted in order to see the
statistically significant differences between the two groups.
The results are presented in Table 7. Some of the items in
academic self-confidence dimension are negatively worded.
They were transformed prior to the analysis.
As we can understand from Table 7, there are statistically
significant differences between the two groups in terms of academic confidence (p. 000 <.05), self-regulation (p. 011
<.05), and self-evaluation (p. 003 <.05). However, there are no
statistically significant differences between the two groups in
terms of academic effort (p. 247 >.05) and academic effort (p.
216> .05). Now that academic self-confidence is the second
component of academic self-concept, we can say that the high
achieving group has a significantly higher level of self-concept.
We can understand that high achieving group can follow
lectures easily, help their coursemates in their school work and
think that they would get higher marks if they studied. High
achieving group also feel confident in issues related to the
courses. They believe that they are good in courses and they
are not frightened in the face of failure. It is also important
that high achieving group rated themselves higher in terms of
self-regulation. We understand that they have more managing
power on the material they are learning, they plan and monitor
the learning process, and they work hard to get high marks.
High achieving students were also found to be better than low
achieving students in terms of self-efficacy. This means that
they believe that they perform better than other students,
they expect to do well in courses, and they believe that they
know a great deal about the courses they work on.
Research question 3: What is the correlation among academic
confidence, academic effort, self-efficacy, self-regulation, and
self-evaluation and academic success and which of these
variables are predictors of academic achievement?
In order to investigate the relation between (a) academic
confidence, (b) academic effort, (c) self-efficacy, (d) self-regulation, and (e) self-evaluation and academic success,
correlation analysis was carried out. The results are presented
in Table 8.
Click Here to Zoom
|Table 8: Pearson Product-Moment Correlations Among Variable of the Study and Academic Success
As it can be seen from Table 5, there are positive relationships
between academic achievement and academic confidence (r
= .46, p< .01), self-efficacy (r = .26, p< .01), self-regulation (r =
.26, p< .01), and self-evaluation (r = .32, p< .01). Interestingly,
the correlation between academic achievement and academic
effort was rather low (r = .17, p< .01). The highest correlation
occurred between academic confidence and academic
achievement. This indicates the important of academic confidence
and indirectly the importance of academic self-concept
in academic achievement.
As a next step, in order to determine the predictors of academic
achievement within the variables of the study, a regression
analysis was conducted. The results are given in Table 9.
Click Here to Zoom
|Table 9: Results of Multiple Regression Analysis for Academic Achievement
Table 9 reports the results of multiple linear regression analysis
for the variables of the study and academic achievement. The
multiple correlation coefficient was 48, revealing that nearly
23% of the variance in the sample can be accounted for the
linear combination of variables in the study. T-test results for
the significance of regression coefficients illustrated that selfefficacy
(β = .39, p< .05) and was the only significant predictor
of academic achievement. Other variables were not significant
in predicting academic achievement at higher education for
Turkish ELL learners (β = .06, p> .05; β = .05, p> .05; β = .06, p>
.05, β = .12, p> .05, β = .08, p> .05β = .02, p> .05, respectively).
The findings of the study indicated that the participants have
a moderate-to-high level of self-efficacy and self-regulation,
a moderate level of academic confidence and self-evaluation
and a relatively high level of academic effort. Self-evaluation in
the present study was conceptualized as self-evaluation of EFL
learners in relation to four language skills. In order to measure
their self-evaluation, they were asked to rate their success
in four language skills. The results showed that they have a
moderate level of self-evaluation.
In literature, there are a number of studies that point out that
academic self-concept and academic achievement are closely
related (Cokley, 2000; Awad, 2007; Tan & Yates, 2007; Marsh,
2004). Guay, et al. (2003) also put forward that both academic
self-concept and academic achievement directly influence each
other; that is, they are reciprocal. Raoofi et al. (2013) examined
32 studies on self-efficacy that were carried out from 2003 to
2013 to carry out a thorough analysis of the relation between
self-efficacy and a number of variables in EFL contexts. Most
of these studies also indicated that there was a close relation
between self-efficacy and academic performance. Recently,
in Turkish context, Pehlivan and Köseoğlu (2010) found
a significant positive relationship between the students'
achievement levels and academic self concepts. The present
study has found that although self-concept is not one of the
predictors of success at higher education level, it is related to
academic achievement and high achieving students tend to
have more academic self-confidence, more self-regulation, and
view themselves more successful in all language skills.
The other variables of the study, namely, self-regulation,
self-efficacy, and self-evaluation, are also related to academic
achievement. There is a bulk of studies that confirm the link
between self-regulation and academic success. Demirel and
Turan (2010) found a link between self-regulation and academic
achievement. Cheng (2011) also found a correlation between
self-regulation and academic achievement. Quite recently,
Kırmızı (2014) worked on self-regulation and found that selfevaluation
and metacognition components of self-regulation
were particularly highly correlated with academic success. In
another study in Turkish context, Tılfarlıoğlu and Cinkara (2009)
also indicated the close connection between self-efficacy and
academic performance. The present study also found a high
level of correlation between self-regulation and academic
The findings of the present study also indicated that there is
a positive relationship between students' self-efficacy beliefs
and their academic performance. According to the results of
the present study, the most important predictor of academic
achievement was self-efficacy (beta=0.001, p<00.5). Earlier
research has indicated that self-efficacy has a stronger effect
on academic performance than other motivational variables,
such as self-regulation (Kitsantas & Zimmerman, 2009; Pintrich
and De Groot, 1990; Pintrich and Schunk, 2002). Therefore, we
can say that self-efficacy is one of the most important variables
that determine the self-regulation beliefs of students and their
In the present study, the participants were grouped into two
groups: low achievers and high achievers. They were compared
in terms of academic self-concept, self-efficacy, self-regulation,
and self-evaluation. The results indicated that there are
statistically significant differences between low achieving and
high achieving groups in terms of academic confidence (a subdimension
of self-concept), self-regulation, and self-evaluation.
This finding is in line with the literature. There are a number
of researchers who claimed that academic achievement
influences academic self-concept (Marsh, et al. 1999; Marsh,
et al. 2002). Recently, Guay, et al. (2010) found that students
who had higher level of academic self-concept had higher
grades because their academic self-concept enabled them to
be more autonomous and motivated.
In the present study, the relationship between academic selfconcept
and academic achievement was conceptualized as
unidirectional. That is to say, the present study worked on the
influence of academic self-concept on academic achievement.
However, from the literature we learn that the relation between
academic self-concept and academic achievement can be
considered reciprocally. Currently, a number of researchers
support the reciprocal-effects model, in which academic selfconcept
and academic achievement serve as a predictor of one
another (De Fraine, et al., 2007; Marsh, et al., 2002). Therefore,
in another study the relation between academic self-concept
and academic achievement can be considered reciprocally.
Rodriguez (2009) stated that academic self-concept plays a
crucial role in learning and determines students' motivational
orientation. Therefore, there is a need to carry out studies
that explore the relation between academic self-concept
and motivation. In another line of research, the influential factors that foster self-efficacy of learners were studied. Çakır
and Alıcı (2009), for example, found that past experiences
and social persuasions fostered the development of selfefficacy.
Similarly, Wangand Pape (2007) announced that past
experiences, interest, and attitudes towards English language
play significant roles in the development of self-efficacy.
Therefore, more research can be carried out on the factors that
enhance self-efficacy of learners.
| Archana, K.,& Chamundeswari, S.(2013). Self-concept and
academic achievement of students at the high school. Journal
of Sociological Research, 4, 105 -113.
2) Awad, G. (2007). The role of racial identity, academic self-concept,
and self-esteem in the prediction of academic outcomes for
African American students. Journal of Black Psychology, 33,
3) Bandura, A. (1984). Recycling misconceptions of perceived selfefficacy.
Cognitive Therapy & Research, 8(3), 231-255.
4) Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A
social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
5) Bandura, A. (1995). Self-efficacy in changing societies. New York,
NY: Cambridge University Press.
6) Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York,
7) Barnard-BrakL., Lan, W. Y., &Paton, V. O.(2008). Online selfregulatory
learning behaviors as a mediator in the relationship
between online course perceptions with achievement.
International Review of Research in Open and Distance
Learning, 9(2), 1-11.
8) Bong, M., & Skaalvik, E.M. (2003). Academic self-concept and selfefficacy:
How different are they really? Educational Psychology
Review, 15(1), 1-40.
9) Bracken, B. A. (2009). Positive self-concepts. In R. Gilman, E.
S. Huebner, & M. J. Furlong (Eds.), Handbook of positive
psychology in the schools (pp. 89-106). New York, NY:
10) Çakır, O., & Alıcı, D. (2009). Seeing self as others see you: Variability
in self-efficacy ratings in student teaching. Teachers And
Teaching: Theory and Practice, 15(5), 541-561.
11) Cheng, E.C.K. (2011). The role of self-regulated learning in
enhancing learning performance. The International Journal of
Research and Review, 6(1), 1-16.
12) Ching, L. C. (2002). Strategy and self-regulation instruction as
contributors to Improving students' cognitive model in an ESL
programme. English For Specific Purposes, 13, 261-289.
13) Choi, N. (2005). Self-efficacy and self-concept as predictors of
college students' academic performance. Psychology in the
Schools, 42(2), 197-205.
14) Cokley, K. (2000). An investigation of academic self-concept and
its relationship to Academic achievement in African American
college students. Journal of Black Psychology, 26, 148 -164.
15) De Fraine, B., Van Damme, J., & Onghena, P. (2007). A longitudinal
analysis of gender differences in academic self-conceptand
language achievement: A multivariate multilevel latent growth
approach. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 32(1),132-
16) Demirel, Ö., & Turan, S.(2010). The relationship between selfregulated
learning skills and achievement: A case from
Hacettepe University Medical School. Hacettepe University
Journal of Education, 38, 279-291.
17) DiPerna, J. C., & Elliott, S. N. (1999).Development and validation
of the academic competence evaluation scales. Educational
Psychology Review, 17, 207-225.
18) Guay, F., Marsh, H. W., & Boivin, M. (2003). Academic self-concept
and achievement:Developmental perspective on their causal
ordering. Journal of Educational Psychology, 95,124-136.
19) Ferla, J., Valcke, M., & Cai, Y. (2009). Academic self-efficacy and
academic self-concept: Reconsidering structural relationships.
Learning and Individual Differences, 19, 499-505.
20) Guay, F., Ratelle, C. R., Roy, A., & Litalien, D. (2010). Academic selfconcept,
autonomous academic motivation, and academic
achievement: Mediating and addictive effects. Learning and
Individual Differences, 20, 644-652 .
21) Hsieh, P. H. P.,& Schallert, D. L. (2008. Implications from selfefficacy
and attribution theories for an understanding of
undergraduates motivation in a foreign language course.
Contemporary Educational Psychology, 33, 513-532.
22) Kırmızı, Ö. (2014). Self-regulated learning and metacognition
strategies employed by regular, evening, and distance
education ELL students. The Anthropologist, 18(2), 447-460.
23) Kitsantas, A., & Zimmerman, B. (2009). College students'
homework and academic achievement: the mediating role of
self-regulatory beliefs. Metacognition Learning,4, 97-110.
24) Liu, W. C., & Wang, C. K. J. (2005). Academic self-concept: A crosssectional
study of grade and gender differences in a Singapore
secondary school. Asia Pacific Education Review, 6(1), 20-27.
25) Liu, H. J. (2008). The relationship between EFL student academic
self-concept and language performance. Feng Chia Journal of
Humanities and Social Sciences, 17, 165-184.
26) Liu, H.J. (2010). The relation of academic self-concept to
motivation among university EFL students. Feng Chia Journal
of Humanities and Social Sciences, 20, 207-225.
27) Magogwe, J. M., & Oliver, R. (2007). The relationship between
language learning strategies, proficiency, age and self-efficacy
beliefs: A study of language learners in Botswana. SYSTEM, 35,
28) Marsh, H. W., Byrne, B. M., & Yeung, A. S. (1999). Causal ordering
of academic self-concept and achievement: Reanalysis of a
pioneering study and revised recommendations. Educational
Psychologist, 34, 154 -157.
29) Marsh, H. W., Hau, K.T., & Kong, C.K. (2002). Multilevel causal
ordering of academic self-concept and achievement: Influence
of language of instruction (English compared with Chinese) for
Hong Kong students. American EducationalResearch Journal,
30) Marsh, H. W., Ellis, L., & Craven, R. G. (2002). How do pre-school
children feel about themselves? Unraveling measurement
and multidimensional self-concept structure. Developmental
Psychology, 38, 376-393.
31) Marsh, H. W. (2004). Negative effects of school-average
achievement on academic self-concept: A comparison of
the big-fish-little-pond effect across Australian states and
territories. Australian Journal of Education, 48, 5-26.
32) Mills, N., Pajares, F., & Herron, C. (2006). A re-evaluation of the
role of anxiety: Self-efficacy, anxiety, and their relation to
reading and listening proficiency. Foreign Language Annals,
33) Mills, N., Pajares, F., & Herron, C. (2007). Self-efficacy of college
intermediate French students: Language Learning, 57(3),417-
34) Pehlivan, H., & Köseoğlu, P. (2010). Ankara fen lisesi öğrencilerinin
biyoloji dersine yönelik tutumlari ile akademik benlik
tasarimlari. Hacettepe University Journal of Education, 38,
35) Pintrich, R. R., & De Groot, E. V. (1990). Motivational and selfregulated
learning components of classroom academic
performance, Journal of Educational Psychology, 82, 33-40.
36) Pintrich, P.R., Smith, D.A.F., Garcia, T., & McKeachie, W.J. (1991).
A Manual for the use of the Motivated Strategies for Learning
Questionnaire (MSLQ). Ann Arbor, MI: National Center for
Research to Improve Postsecondary Teaching and Learning.
37) Pintrich, P., & Schunk, D. (2002). Motivation in education: Theory,
research, and application (2nd ed.). Columbus, OH: Merrill-
38) Raju S.S. (2013). Impact of self-concept on scholastic achievement
of 9th class students in physical sciences: IOSR Journal of
Humanities and Social Science (IOSR-JHSS), 9(5), 129-133.
39) Rodriguez, C. (2009). The impact of academic self-concept,
expectation and the choice of learning strategy on academic
achievement: The case of business students. Higher Education
Research and Development, 28(5), 523-539.
40) Raoofi, S., Tan, B. H., & Chan, S. H. (2012). Self-efficacy in second
language learning contexts. English Language Learning, 5(11),
41) Sikhwari T.D. (2014).A study of the relationship between
motivation self-concept and academic achievement of
students at a University of Limpopo Province, South Africa.
International Journal of Educational Science,6(1), 19-25.
42) Tan, J. B., & Yates, S. M. (2007). A Rasch-analysis of the academic
self-concept questionnaire. International Educational Journal,
43) Tılfarlıoğlu, F.T.,& Cinkara, E. (2009).Self-efficacy in EFL: Differences
among proficiency groups and relationship with success,
Novitas-ROYAL, 3(2), 129-142.
44) Tılfarlıoglu, F. T., & Ciftçi, F. S.. (2011). Supporting self-efficacy
and learner autonomy in relation to academic successin
EFLclassrooms (A case study). Theory and Practice in Language
Studies, 1(10), 1284-1294.
45) Trautwein, U., Lüdtke, O., Marsh, H. W., Köller, O., & Baumert, J.
(2006). Tracking, grading, and student motivation: Using group
composition and status to predict self-concept and interest in
ninth-grade mathematics. Journal of Educational Psychology,
46) Wang, C., & Pape, S. J. (2007). A probe into three Chinese boys'
self-efficacy beliefs learning English as a second language.
Journal of Research in Childhood Education, 21(4), 364-379.
47) Wigfield, A., & Eccles, J. S. (2000). Expectancy-value theory of
achievement motivation. Contemporary Educational Psychology,
48) Zimmerman, B.J.(1989). A social cognitive view of self-regulated
learning. Journal of Educational Psychology, 81, 329-339.
49) Zimmerman, B.J., & Risemberg, R.(1997). Self-regulatory
dimensions of academic learning and motivation. In GD
Phye (Ed.), Handbook of academic learning: Construction of
knowledge (pp. 105-125). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
50) Zimmerman, B.J. (2004). Sociocultural influence and students'
development of academic self-regulation: A social-cognitive
perspective. In McInerney, D.M., Van Etten, S. (Eds.): Big
theories revisited (pp.139-164). Greenwhich, CT: Information