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2015, Cilt 5, Sayı 3, Sayfa(lar) 272-284
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DOI: 10.5961/jhes.2015.129
Educational Leadership: Educational Development and Leadership Programs in Selected Countries and Pakistan
Iqbal M. KHAN1, Usman KHALIL2, Ifra IFTIKHAR3
1Lahore School of Economics, Lahore, Pakistan
2University of Management & Technology, Lahore, Pakistan
3Lahore College for Women University, Lahore, Pakistan
Keywords: Leadership, Educational leadership, Cultural factors, Regional factors, Pakistan
Abstract
The subject of educational leadership would usually commence immediately by approaching the topic & work related to it. This paper is attempting to enhance the scope to examine some aspects of leadership and then to synthesize these to the concept of educational leadership. In Pakistan educational leadership is a stroke of luck, not a nourished and groomed phenomenon. It appears on an adhoc basis in the educational environment; few & far between examples of educational leadership exist. But to explain this phenomenon, enhancing the scope of leadership may be one way of explaining it better. We have also attempted to evaluate educational policy from high benchmark countries in education such as USA, Canada, UK and a comparison of Pakistani education policy and practice. However the limitation of this paper is that we did not have sufficient data and information on principals of educational institutes of Pakistan and education policy and the historical perspective of the same. But the comparison makes an interesting case. There is a shortage of principals that have a vision and ability to lead in education, as they are not selected on merits; ill-educated; not sufficient grounding for the position of principal. The need is to break away from ‘policy mechanic paradigm' and go for ‘classroom culturalist model' and this is influenced by the quality of leadership. The objective of this research are to understand what leadership in reality is and how it translates in the context of education, and to understand what a good model of educational leadership is and how to develop this in the context of cultural and regional factors in Pakistan.
  • Top
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Methods
  • Disscussion
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Introduction
    The Great Man Theory
    If anything proved Thomas Carlyle's argument about the importance of the ‘Great Man Theory' in history, then it was the circumstances and aura around Winston Churchill. There has never been such clear cut evidence for this ‘leader-centered theory'. There was also ample contemporary evidence in the form of Hitler, Stalin and Roosevelt, and that in the true sense was the era of ‘Great Man Theory' (Carlyle, 1840).

    Each leader brings with himself some unique qualities and Churchill brought with him his extraordinary talents for rhetoric and language. As the new Prime Minister, he mobilized the English language and sent it into battle. His visits to the bombed-out houses, his surprise flights to the troops in Egypt, his incredible interest in new weapons, new forms of fighting war – re-energized the British Nation and many smaller nations as well. He created a personal contact at every level and he dealt with people above all, which displayed his unique quality.

    But was he – or, the other Great Men – really all that decisive in altering events? What, after all, changes the course of history? Economist, Karl Marx (1852) says;

    “Men make their own History, but they do not make it as they please; they do not make it under self-selected circumstances, but under circumstances existing already, given and transmitted from the past”.

    Churchill could certainly not alter history; by the 1940s, there were deep forces at workforces like the rise of Asia and the relative shrinking of Europe – which were beginning to change the planet's geopolitical landscape. And nearly a century downs the road we see a greatly changed world and a frame of mind which is absolutely independent. Thus demanding a leadership with a particular kind of followership.

    No matter whatever we do, our efforts remind us of how even the most powerful people are constrained by time and space, by geography and history (Kennedy P.: ‘International Herald Tribune', May 22, 2010).

    Another classical example of a contemporary leader is that of Nelson Mandela. He also falls in the category we have called the ‘Great Leader Theory Concept'. Mandela possesses gifts of being a tactician, an activist and a politician. All the leaders of the world have been seeking his advise how to make the world a better place. He has displayed a greatly different kind of leadership which has taken the world by storm. Nelson Mandela has his 8 points formula of Leadership (known for his perfect timing). His formula has relevance to Educational Leadership also and these are some of his eight point formulae:

    1. Courage is not the absence of fear – its inspiring others to move beyond it. Of course we are afraid but you cannot let people down. You must put up a front and empower students to do more.

    2. Lead from the front – but don't leave your base behind. Be the pragmatic idealist students love the challenge of doing on their own.

    3. Lead from the back and let others believe they are in front. Do not enter the debate too early. The trick of the leadership is allowing yourself to be led too. It is wise to persuade students to do things and make them think it was their own idea. Cherish loyalty but do not be obsessed by it. People act in their own interest, a fact of nature, not a drawback, or defect or flaw. Generally students are loyal to you as long as you are associated with them.

    4. Appearances matter. Size and strength matter and so does appearance. In Mandela's case, after emerging from prison, people noticed that he was not bitter. He had to project the exact opposite emotion. Children are disappointing at times, but take everything in a stride. They will learn from you and their mistakes. For him the most important question was “What is the end that I seek and what the most practical way to get there is?” You as an educationist must have s similar question in mind. This question was his destiny. In case of adverse, never to sulk is also a lesson in leadership in ‘Time magazine' July 21, 2008 by Stengel.

    Research Questions
    a. Can the models of “Transformational Leadership” and “Instructional Leadership” be employed in Pakistan?
    b. What models of Educational Leadership Programs would be appropriate for Pakistan?
    c. Quality Assurance is an aspect of Educational Leadership is it the missing link in Pakistan?

    Purpose of Paper
    The purpose of this paper is to see if there exists educational leadership in Pakistan and to find out whether quality assurance is indeed the missing link in today's educational institutes that do not have good leadership. It is also the purpose of this paper to understand certain aspects of educational leadership and its impact on institution of education in selected countries and in Pakistan from the perspective of seeing what can be adopted from these best practices prevailing.

  • Top
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Methods
  • Disscussion
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Methods
    We began with the premise that there is a need to look into the various successful examples of Educational Policies prevailing in some selected countries. We also wanted to look into the Pakistani Policy and the crucial element of implementation. Therefore a wide variety of literature, documents, book and articles were selected and reviewed to see the elements that helped or prevented the growth of a successful education policy. Most English speaking countries such as UK, USA, Canada, Australia, and News Zealand have an excellent track record of research in this area; hence a few countries were selected for comparison with Pakistan. The report has been based mostly on content analysis relevant to Pakistan.

    The other scope of work was to understand what leadership in reality is and how it translates in the context of education. It was also important to see what are the new trends of leadership theory and the modern concept of implementing them in the age of Knowledge Based Economy. The learning organization as a concept was kept in consideration. Therefore literature and experience of other countries were reviewed to formulate a recommendatory paper.

  • Top
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Methods
  • Disscussion
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Discussion
    Leadership: Perspectives in Theory and Research
    In one definition it has been said that “Great Leadership is a unique form of art, requiring both force and vision to an extraordinary degree”. Warren G. Bennis, University of Southern California explains a fine distinction between Management & Leadership “Managers have as their goal to do things right. Leaders have as their goal to do the right thing. People are persuaded by reason, but moved by emotions, he must both persuade them and move them”. A leader must have both the vision and the capacity to do the right thing at the right time. And if anything is more important to a leader it is his emotional intelligence. The roots of morality are to be found in empathy. Putting oneself in another place leads to moral principles. This is the social intelligence that reads and acts to share the burden of others (Daniel Goldman).

    ‘Jago' quotes Stogdill (1948) to explain the context and theory of leadership:

    Leadership is not only some quality or characteristic that one possesses or is perceived to possess, it can be something that one does. It therefore can describe an act as well as person. Leadership does not involve the use of force, coercion or domination and is not necessarily implied by the use of such titles as manager, supervisor or superior. In this respect, the definition provides a conceptual distinction between leadership processes and motivational process, Leadership is therefore distinct from ‘supervision' of what might be termed ‘headship'.

    Jago goes on to explain that leadership is all about people and interaction between them. The leader influences but the recipient must permit himself to be influenced. These will bond because of a common cause, a mission. The quality of leadership greatly depends upon the quality of follower ship. Leadership is an evolving dynamic process. He explains that this does not end here. Multiple leader roles may coexist in groups, and each leadership performing a leadership function at that level but always converging on the overall goals or Mission of the organization or institution. Moreover leadership is seen as general phenomena, whereas it is also prescribed to be contingent to situational factors. Leadership is also viewed in terms of ‘traits' which are measurable quantifiable and observed as overt behavioral aspect. Whereas Calder's point of view is that leadership is a disposition of or a trait that need exist in the perception of others, particularly of followers; and that it is not a viable scientific, construct.

    With this background we examine the educational leadership perspective.

    Educational Leadership
    The manner, in which an educational institution is run, is reflected primarily in the style of leadership provided by its head.

    His job has become very complicated. He has responsibilities which include a wide range of managerial functions such as maintenance of discipline, public relations which include not only parents, but relations with immediate and remote officers. He cannot afford being dubbed overbearing and haughty. He will be required to look into faculty administrative relationship, looking after the office-work, accounts, purchase of all sorts of materials, maintenance of building if not more.

    He symbolizes in his person all the contradictions of a transitional society. His teachers and students bring to the campus all the social problems and stresses to which they are exposed at home and in society. He has to be in the mids of it.

    The paper by Day et al (2007) is an interesting study that raises the questions “What is about leadership that was effective that certain principals performed better than average?”

    A study was commissioned in 1998 by the National Association of Head Teachers in the UK to study the principals that were recognized as effective leaders. Subsequently a team of interviewers visited the principals and their environment to assess the qualities of leadership that was so effective.

    The findings were multidimensional. The human side indicated that the educational leaders were caring and emphasized the human dimension in the management role. They placed high premium on personal values and believed in cultural change. They were also found to be reflective and principled. They had displayed value-led approach and were not confined to narrow rational or task oriented approach.

    In fact the interesting finding was that ‘effective leadership' was not an easy task, the principals had to deal with tensions and dilemmas dealing with their day to day routine. Managing these tensions was an important aspect of their leadership qualities and at times of crises to remain cool and to be able to manage the crises. The main feature of their success was their personal values and their abilities to maintain and develop a learning and achievement and yet deal with tensions.

    They had also moved beyond a narrow rational managerial view of their role to a more holistic, value-led approach. Their experiences and performances played an important role. The implication for leadership training and development was felt strongly. There was strong link between the personal and professional development and between the development of the individual and the organization.

    The initial step would be the definition of a learning organization. It is an organization that acquires knowledge and innovates fast enough to survive and thrive in a rapidly changing environment. Learning organization create a culture that encourages and supports continuous employee learning, critical thinking, and risk taking with new ideas, allowing mistakes and value employee contribution. And disseminate the new knowledge throughout the organization for incorporation into day to day activities. Mahoney (2000), begins his argument in support of a learning organization by saying “leadership must exist at all levels in an organization, regardless of size, for it to consider itself a learning organization”. He suggests that leadership should be encouraged at all levels. The belief is basic which is that people are the most valuable asset of an organization. He has observed that all successful organizations are using advances in technology and communication system and activity encourage healthy exchanges of views and ideas at all levels. He has used an interesting analogy to explain his view of leadership, he says “Leadership is like playing a round of golf; it has to be worked at. You have to take consideration of conditions, your style of play, and your enthusiasm to improve”.

    This simply means that you have to keep working to improve your leadership qualities. The writer is of the opinion that Myers-Briggs personality test has a great contribution to those who want to benefit by applying the learning to their leadership styles. It teaches you to handle the personality differences. This he believes creates a learning organization. Listening and trying to understand views contrary to your own can be rewarding and sometimes frustrating. He offers his pragmatic views through the formulae he calls RECIPE:

    R= Responsibility
    E= Leadership experience with responsibility
    C= Courage and confidence to lead with integrity
    I= To own what ‘I' am saying
    P= To go for process review frequently
    E = Equality of opportunity

    He therefore emphasizes the personality and personal development, but simultaneously the organizational development, and the understanding of the need for organization and cultural change. But the important thing is to understand your own motivation and developed values and bond and loyalty for the organization. The mission and vision should fit with the personal and corporate goals. The paper by Simkins et al. examines the issues of head teacher's role in the context of schools in context of Pakistan. This paper examines the key variables that may contribute to the personal efficacy of the head teachers.

    There is enough evidence to support the effective leadership is a key factor in school improvement since major research is based on Western industrialized world. One is prompted once again to ask would it be applicable in developing countries like Pakistan. Would the models of good leadership developed in the West be suited to the Pakistani environment? And yet Pakistan also has its share of successful educational leaders and the question then is how these leaders in Pakistani context manage change and bring improvement. Does the experience of the Western society suggest any preparation and this approach the professional development of head teacher? In response to this question three case studies of institutional heads were studied in the city of Karachi. The purpose was to see how they manage change in the cultural context of Pakistan.

    Six head teachers were interviewed, identified, that differentiate between school systems determine the opportunities and constraints on schools heads in playing their role. the government institution had a debilitating culture effect. But in the paper ‘three case studies' were presented that indicated that the national culture was the important variable, which influence leadership behavior. The influence was perpetuated by the system. The paper also examined the Pakistani culture through the findings of Hofstede. It showed Pakistan is a high power distance culture. In such a culture subordinates exhibit a strong sense of dependence on superiors. They also showed an admiration of the boss who decides autocratically (Hofstede, 1991).

    Thus, while national and community cultures create broad generic frameworks of the expectations about leaders and leadership, these are contextualized through the cultural expectations generated and powers granted within particular school systems and further refined through individual head teacher's personal orientation.

    In the Pakistani scenario the head of the educational institution is ‘doomed to function between an era which is dead and an era which refuses to be born'. He is confronted with two explosions: explosion of change and explosion of expectations. “We are confronted with the greatest – revolution the world has seen. The face of the world and its problems has been transformed in a single generation” (Andre Malraux). “No age had a thornier bout with relevancy than our own” (Mc Namara).

    Ross and Gray (2006) conducted a study to understand the relationship of principals with variables that were beneficial to the schools. The reason for the undertaking of this study was that school leaders/principals were in the end held accountable for the performance of their institution. But through their study of past literature it was found that there was no direct relationship between the principals on variables such as the achievements of students. This thus does not support the study, but the authors drove the argument that the principals may provide an indirect effect on the institution that promotes good learning and positive student achievement and satisfaction. Thus those conditions could be high teacher expectations, student opportunity to learn and a clear mission. Henceforth this made the case to test the case.

    It was transformational leadership that was chosen to understand whether this effect was plausible. Because, there is a greater chance for transformational leadership to produce the behaviors and beliefs in teachers for greater student achievement. They described transformational leadership as having charisma, being able to intellectually challenge others and being considerate.

    The Predominant Theory of Educational Leadership
    The Western industrialized societies such as UK, US, Australian, Canada and New Zealand have given credence to new models of leadership in an educational context. ‘Transformational leadership' has gained much ground ( Bass, 1985) and similarly ‘instructional leadership' (Southworth, 2002) which are ‘education-specific' has also raised the vision of higher quality in education. Results indicate that principals who adopt a transformational leadership style are likely to have a positive impact on teacher beliefs about their collective capacity and on teacher commitment to organizational values. Some other views that have gained are invitational, inspirational and dispersed approach.

    Examining the Quality Assurance Aspect of School Effectiveness
    Newton (2002) conducted a qualitative study to understand the impact of a quality assurance in two academic departments and how they cope with the procedures that come along with quality assurance.

    The author first stresses, there are some studies that challenge the theory whether quality assurance can really be of benefit since the many different procedures and monitoring bodies can manage properly. The main issue comes forth is that leadership at educational institutes are being heavily challenged. One of the ways the leadership is challenged is that the presence of monitoring bodies with increased accountability has lead to mistrust and suspicion among teachers and management.

    Also the author points that policy was central in his research. Because quality objectives should be reflected in the policies but many considerations should be taken like culture, size of organization and strategic objectives. This is because he believes these institutes should not be looked on from a complete rational viewpoint.

    The research took place at New College to see whether accountability and improvement can reach to a mutual agreement. The methods used were surveys, tape records, focus groups and external quality reports etc.

    Research has not been the forte in the Pakistani educational context. Whatever research that has taken place has been about the system prevailing. As we have seen the research has been on ‘top-down’ system change. Decentralization is the prevailing norm and has proved successful in the Western world. But this generates different issues and results in the developing countries. The values and ‘impact of decentralization’ have not been disseminated to the implementers. There has been no capacity generation of this awareness at any level especially to the local managers or head-teachers.

    No empowerment of Head-teachers has taken place. What has taken place is loosened hierarchies of control or empowerment of parents through school boards. These remain as ‘dead horses’ with no progressive deal (Simkins et al., 2003).

    An article by Hallinger and Heck explored the relationship between principal leadership and student achievement. The focuses are on the substantive findings that emerged from the review. It is concluded that while substantial progress has been made over the past 15 years in understanding the principal’s contribution to school effectiveness, the most important scholarly and practical work lies ahead.

    The question that arises is how the new model of management and educational leadership can be translated to Pakistan. The concept of invitational and dispersed approach to leadership which have gained more credence (Gronn, 1999, Stoll & Fink, 1996) need to be accepted through a process of persuasion and convincing. There have to be some models of success and some role models of successful educational leaders that will open up this path.

    Waseem, Mujtaba, and Shakir (2013), focusing on suggested mechanism for producing quality research at higher educational institutes in Pakistan State that academic research can also boost the economy of a country. Students face many problems while conducting academic research which must be eradicated by focusing on a student based educational policy where individual attention is given to students for their personal development.

    Educational Leadership System in USA
    The United States continues to manage one of the largest universal education systems in the world. More than 75 million children and adults were enrolled in U.S. schools and colleges in the 2005-2006 academic year, according to the National Center for Education Statistics.

    According to U.S. Department of State publication USA Education in Brief:

    The U.S. educational system today comprises almost 96000 public elementary and secondary schools. School attendance is compulsory for students through age 16 in most states. Children generally begin elementary school with kindergarten (K) at age five and continue through secondary school (grade 12) to age 18. Typically, the elementary school years include kindergarten through grades five or six, and at some schools through grade eight. Secondary schools — known as high schools in the United States — generally include grades nine through 12. Schools have been, and remain, a state and local responsibility in the United States. Unlike most other nations, the United States does not operate a national education system.

    Each state’s department of education is controlled by an elected board, headed by the superintendent of public instruction or the state commissioner of education. Board members are elected by local residents or appointed by the state governor and usually serve from two to six years. The board is responsible for setting policy relating to educational affairs such as the allocation of state and federal funds, certification of teachers, provision of textbooks and library services, records and educational statistics, and setting and enforcing the term of compulsory education.

    The superintendent of a school is responsible for executing the policies established by the local board of education. Together with the board, the superintendent prepares the school budget, determines the level of taxes (usually property taxes) needed to finance the school program, employs teachers and other school personnel, provides and maintains school buildings, purchases equipment and supplies, and provides transport for students who live beyond walking distance from school.

    Principalship A Leadership Responsibility
    No child left behind legislation is shaping and influencing education system of USA for more than ten years. NCLB requires states to set educational standards for achievement at different grade levels and to take steps to improve the performance of those who don’t meet the standards. There are many variables which are critical to effective education and leadership, especially principalship acquires an important place in these variables. Today’s demand for accountability and measurable results in student achievement has put the school principal front and center as the leader most responsible for ensuring that no child gets left behind (Herrington & Willis, 2005). And, Institute of Educational Leadership, defines the role of educational leadership:

    “Schools of the 21st century require a new kind of principal, one who fulfills a variety of roles:
    - Instructional leader — is focused on strengthening teaching and learning, professional development, data-driven decision- making and accountability.

    - Community leader — is imbued with a big picture awareness of the school’s role in society; shared leadership among educators, community partners and residents; close relations with parents and others; and advocacy for school capacity building and resources.

    - Visionary Leader — has a demonstrated commitment to the conviction that all children will learn at high levels and is able to inspire others inside and outside the school building with this vision.

    All three are important. But in a crucial sense, leadership for student learning is the priority that connects and encompasses all three major roles.”

    The National Association of Elementary School Principals (2001) defines instructional leadership as leading learning communities, in which staff members meet on a regular basis to discuss their work, collaborate to solve problems, reflect on their jobs, and take responsibility for what students learn.

    Instructional leadership differs from that of a school administrator or manager in a number of ways. Principals who pride themselves as administrators usually are too preoccupied in dealing with strictly managerial duties, while principals who are instructional leaders involve themselves in setting clear goals, allocating resources to instruction, managing the curriculum monitoring lesson plans, and evaluating teachers. In short, instructional leadership reflects those actions a principal takes to promote growth in student learning (Flath, 1989).

    Role and responsibilities of school principals in the United States are defined in the Education Encyclopedia1 as follows:

    The school principal is the highest-ranking administrator in an elementary, middle, or high school. Principals typically report directly to the school superintendent. Principals are responsible for the overall operation of their schools. Some of their duties and responsibilities are delineated in state statutes. States and school districts have also set expectations for principals through their principal evaluation criteria and procedures. During the latter part of the twentieth century, as schools began to be held more accountable for the performance of their students on national and state assessments, the duties and responsibilities of principals changed. Principals became more responsible for teaching and learning in their schools. In particular, their duty to monitor instruction increased along with their responsibility to help teachers improve their teaching. With this change in responsibilities, principals discovered the need to more effectively evaluate instruction and assist teachers as they worked to improve their instructional techniques. The principal’s duty to improve the school instructional program is mandated by legislation in some states.

    Principals are also responsible for facilitating their school’s interactions with parents and others in the school community. Principals also interact with parents who serve on school advisory boards, parent/teacher organizations, and booster clubs. Principals continue to be responsible for the management of their schools even though their primary responsibility has shifted. One major management responsibility is school safety.

    Certification for Principals
    Murphy (1992) describes ‘the evolution of preparation programs’ (p. 16) in terms of four broad eras. Prior to 1900, educators and business leaders promoted the need for strong leadership in schools, but formal preparation programs for school administrators had not yet developed. The second era lasting from 1900 to 1945 encompassed a period of vast growth in administrative preparation programs; administrative positions complete formal course work and hold certification. The years from 1946 to 1985 brought “a period of great excitement, programmatic support, influential leadership, unparalleled activity, and considerable growth” (Murphy, 1992, p. 37), with an intense focus on professionalism. The last era from 1985 to present brings us to the “period of choice” (Murphy, 1992, p. 68), with university-based administrative preparation programs drawing criticism concerning the quality of leaders they produce.

    Professional Preparation of School Principals
    Principals in the United States must have at least three years of teaching experience, university master’s degrees, and they must have completed mandated programs of study leading to the receipt of licenses or certificates to serve as school principals in their respective states (Su et al., 2003).

    Normally, programs require 30-36 graduate credit hours. On average, a three (3) credit graduate level course requires 45 hours of classroom instructional time and roughly 125 hours of additional out of class work. Courses are delivered during two academic semesters. On average, a part-time student may complete a planned program of study (30-36 credit hours) in 3-5 years. In many instances the planned program of study constitutes a Master’s Degree.

    At least 35 states have adopted the ISLLC standards and use them to guide policy and practice related to principal preparation (Achilles & William, 2001). In addition, individuals applying for licensure are required to take and earn a passing grade on the ISLLC test, the School Leaders Licensure Assessment (SLLA) (Björk & Murphy, 2005).

    Educational School Leadership in Canada
    The Canadian insistence on the collective concerns of peace, order and good government has meant that state projects such as schooling are seen in terms of their over all impact on society. For this reason more public funds are spent on school systems in Canada than in any other country. Canada spends about 7% of its GDP on education. English and French are national languages (World Data on education, 2006/07).

    Policies Structure of Education System: Basic structures of provincial and territorial education systems across Canada are similar. Each has three tiers — elementary, secondary, and postsecondary — although the grades at which each level begins and ends vary. All jurisdictions provide universal, free elementary and secondary schooling for 12 years, with the exception of Quebec where it is for 11 years. Education is compulsory to the age of 15 or 16 in most jurisdictions. According to Statistics Canada data, there are approximately 15500 schools in Canada: 10100 elementary; 3400 secondary 2000 mixed elementary and secondary. The overall average is 350 students per school. In 2004–05, provinces and territories reported that there were 5.3 million students enrolled in public elementary and secondary schools. Education is free and compulsory up to high school (source: Canadian Information Centre for International Credentials, 2007).

    Education in Canada seeks to attain what are generally defined as the four major goals for schooling: cultivation of mind; vocational preparation; moral and civic development and individual development.

    The Council of Ministers of Education: The Council of Ministers of Education, Canada (CMEC) was formed in 1967 by the provincial and territorial ministers responsible for education to provide a forum in which they could discuss matters of mutual interest, undertake educational initiatives cooperatively, and represent the interests of the provinces and territories with national educational organizations, the federal government, foreign governments, and international organizations.

    School Boards are Responsible for: Determining the number, size and location of schools; building, equipping and furnishing schools; providing education programs that meet the needs of the school community, including needs for special education; prudent management of the funds allocated by the province to support all board activities.

    Principals: Educational administrators who manage elementary, middle, and secondary schools are called principals. Principals are responsible for the organization and management of individual schools, including any budget assigned to the school by the school board. They are also responsible for the quality of instruction at their school and for student discipline.

    School Councils: School Councils advise principals and, where appropriate, school boards on issues affecting the education programs and the operation of individual schools. Their membership reflects both the school and the community, and must include parents and guardians of students, the principal, a teacher, a student representative (secondary school councils), a non-teaching school staff member, as well as members from the community at large. Parents and guardians must make up the majority of council members. School Councils may advise the principal or the school board on: school year calendars; codes of student behavior; curriculum priorities; programs and strategies to improve school performance.

    Ontario College of Teachers: The Ontario College of Teachers regulates the teaching profession and governs its members. The college was established by the provincial government in September 1996. The College of Teachers is responsible for: setting requirements for teaching certificates and maintaining a provincial register of teachers; setting standards for teacher training programs at Ontario universities, and monitoring the training programs to ensure they meet the standards; developing codes of conduct for teachers; discipline and fitness to practice.

    Preparation for School Leaders
    The successful completion of 36 semester hours leads to a master degree in education. The PhD is the terminal degree for those seeking to lead at the executive level including perspective superintendents and principals and for those desiring to teach and lead at institutions of higher education. Effective practice as a building leader is often determined by the ability to combine basic theory and recommended practice with administrative performance.

    Ontario Education Context: (Principals’ qualifications – Licensing)
    Certified teachers in Ontario who want to obtain accreditation from the Ontario College of Teachers to become school administrators must make the following prerequisites:

    - An acceptable university undergraduate degree;
    - Five years of teaching experience;
    - Qualifications in three teaching divisions, one of which must be the Intermediate division, two specialist qualifications; or
    - A Master’s degree or its equivalent; or
    - One specialist qualification and one-half (five courses) of a Master’s degree.

    After completing these requirements, teachers are eligible to have this qualification entered on their Ontario Certificate of Qualification, with the Ontario College of Teachers. This program qualifies them to be appointed to the position of principal or vice-principal in the public education system in Ontario (Canadian Education Center, 2002). While Ontario requires prospective principals to have both a graduate degree and provincial certification programs, most provinces in Canada do not with the exception of New Brunswick and Manitoba.

    Licensing: Mandated, accredited professional learning is an important component of a well structured and accountable public education system. In 2004-05, Canada’s elementary and secondary school systems employed close to 310000 educators, most of whom had four or five years of postsecondary study. Most secondary school teachers have a subject specialization in the courses they teach.

    Principal’s Qualification Program: The Principals Qualification Program takes two years part time to complete. It is divided into two sections, (Part 1 Practical Management, Part 2 Leadership Functions). The facilitators are always current principals. Once qualified, aspirants apply to a school board for a position of vice principal. This is followed by a rigorous interview procedure and referees’ reports. If successful, applicants are appointed to a school. The attainment of the Qualification does not automatically qualify an applicant for a leadership Position. Some are never appointed. Once appointed, Vice principals may be promoted to principal.

    The importance of establishing a culture of professional learning for teachers at all stages of their career is considered crucial. Because initial salaries for beginning teachers are tied to their university qualifications and because the attainment of additional qualifications or a Masters degree enables teachers to move up the pay scale more quickly, there is a system-wide culture of individual professional learning. This is supported by a close relationship with educational academics. (Hargraves & Fullan, 1998; Fullan, 2005)

    The involvement of the Ontario Principals Council, not just in supporting principal professional learning, but in delivering a range of professional learning is a key to the embedding of this culture.

    Recruitment and Selection Procedures of Principals
    Effective recruitment and selection of school administrators continue to be one of the more challenging human resource tasks in educational organizations (McCarthy, 1999; Pounder & Young, 1996). Some of the selection procedures in Canada include resumes, pre-screening interviews often done by telephone, employee testing, reference checks and consulting services (Anderson, 1988; Baltzell & Dentler, 1992; Young & Castetter, 2000; Stout, 1973). According to the National Association of Secondary School Principals (ERS, 1999) the selection of school administrators needs to be based on “qualities of leadership rooted in established knowledge, skills and professional growth that result in dedication to good instructional practice and learning” (p. 100). It means that an appointee should already “have established his or her credentials or shows promise of performing as a leader once in the post” (ERS, 1999, p.101). Furthermore, professional development of administrators enhances growth and integrity if planned with the dynamics of the administrative career and stages of development in mind (Pounder & Merrill, 2001). “Age, stage of career, life’s experiences… make up the total person” (Fullan, 2000, p.27) and generally a decision to enter into administration occurs in mid-career (Hargreaves & Fullan, 1998).

    A Comparison of the British & American Systems
    A study was conducted in 1999 on the British Head-teachers and the American Principals by John Daresh and Trevor Male. The study explored changes that occurred as people moved across ‘borders’, (the transition into headship or principal-ship). But the paper “Crossing the Border into Leadership: Experiences of Newly Appointed British Head-teachers and American Principals” also compares the preparation for headship and the principal-ship in both countries. It discusses the serious discussion and the responsibility felt in these countries to prepare the educational leadership for the future generation and to obtain higher level of quality education.

    USA increased responsibility of head-teachers who is now the Chief Executive and therefore the system is more complex than UK. Americans are slowly moving towards greater statewide control replacing local district control.

    British roles of head-teachers affected by the mandated changes, the British headship is now a full time management role from a teaching. Other changes are: Locally managed schools, Accountability has increased parent power, school governing body has an increased role. Head-teacher now, like English, goes by a National Curriculum. The principal is seen moving up the ranks and involved, a sort of apprenticeship model is emerging. Promoted up the ranks because of seniority on the job training, and the training of self through NDC for school management.

    School Management Task Force (SMTF)
    Head-teacher mentoring scheme through trained mentor was introduced having a reasonable impact. White paper ‘excellence in education’ has had a sound impact as it was introduced for proposed head-teachers to go for formal preparation to equip them for the job of principalship.

    National Professional Qualification for Headship
    Headlamp has been the key training program. The US has had a long history of formal principalship in US. Model was executed by universities through their training program to the principals. In UK Principalship has been taught on a university campus. But in US it consisted of diversity in each state, however, the standard practice was to accept three-year experience of teaching. University Master degree, mandated programs for license to be principal. These have been introduced to meet the growing demand for improvement in educational leadership.

    It was observed that the British headship prospects did not necessarily go through formal education programs of advanced study or degree level. But the system characterized significant experience at Deputy Head Level. Higher degree was considered important but practical experience was treated as a premium advantage.

    The American Principals were found somewhat unprepared on resuming the post immediately after studies. Hence they learned from experience on the job.

    Pre-service preparation pattern: American training prior to taking the post. Graduate university program were a universal practice. The outstanding quality in the American system was that all principals’ preparation required courses such as a School Law, Teacher Supervision, Personal Management Evaluation, School Financing & Budgeting, and these were covered in their Masters Degree in Education.

    Professional Support Received through the Induction Period
    Scheme to support induction was supported by Central Government in England. Headlamp scheme was devised to benefit such induction; in the US the same feeling prevailed and was supported by legislation.

    “Providing leadership for schools is a complex activity, regardless of experience levels. But for the novice head-teachers or principal, the challenges which now appear can be overwhelming. In addition, whatever the blend between theory and practice, there must be a strong commitment to the need for those stepping into school site leadership roles to spend time reflecting on personal values, ethic stances, and other similar mattes which may help them appreciate the single most critical issue facing all who step into a new role”.

    Pakistani Scenario and New Models of Educational Leadership

    There is no shortage of literature on the role of leadership in bringing about improvement in schools. Head-teachers have been the focus of attention receiving a through scanning of what lies at the bottom of the significant pillar of educational edifice. But, as Simkins et al. point out, research has take place in the western industrialized countries which makes it suspect for implementation in a developing country’s scenario. As has been observed the system of education in the two parts of the world are poles apart. In countries such as Pakistan the focus is on ‘top-down’ approach. It is here the system comes into play. There is no devolution and school level teachers have no say. They are all promotes and not merit based selected. This system also has the peculiarities such as, planning and focus on finance take precedence. The force dominating is the bureaucracy and therefore the main lever of change is the administrative bureaucrat. The role of the head-teacher is relegated to an insignificant functionary at the lower level (Simkins et al., 2003)

    Research has revealed that quality education depends upon how schools are managed not resources and ultimately influenced by quality of leadership. This calls to shift from the “policy-mechanic” paradigm towards a ‘classroom – culturalist’ model. The prime responsibility must be placed with schools and decentralization of management responsibility.

    The Structure of Schools in Pakistan and the Challenge
    Pakistan’s public schools are, as we have seen, ‘top-down’ bureaucratic model which are controlled by centralized policy decisions. Provincial Governments act as the implementing agencies. A typical bureaucratic inertia prevails. Head-teachers are promotes by virtue of seniority and not based on leadership potential, talent and innovator or risk takers. The inadequacies in the environment drew out entrepreneurs to setup private sector schools and similarly NGO launched their initiative to promote education. Schools in this category have a different model. Community based initiative in the shape of Trust and Foundation have sprung up. They are decentralized. This sector has grown considerably in the urban and semi-urban areas. Some are elitist and some cater to the middle class society. But the public sector caters to the vast majority and to the low income group in rural and urban areas. However the common trait across the entire sector is that they are all managed and led by untrained teachers or Head-teachers.

    As per the data from Higher Education Commission there are 132 universities and institutes of higher learning, with 318,281 enrolled students, registered with the Higher Education Commission (HEC). All of these universities have business schools offering the degrees in various business related disciplines and in various specializations. This study attempts to help the teachers to look at the teaching service quality through students’ viewpoint and can manage to improve their teaching quality. This also helps the policy makers to apply the service quality approach to assess quality of teaching. The modern perspective of education system rates the teacher as service provider and student as recipients of services or consumers, so teachers must also be evaluated on some parameters of service quality and these ratings can be used to suggest the teachers the improvements within the teaching environment.

    There is an awareness for trained and qualified teachers but despite policy directive it has not made any progress (Simkins et al., 2003). A very useful research has developed the concept of ways to explore how head-teachers should be evaluated for policy initiative (Ribbins & Gronn, 2000). The study has indicated that Pakistan is behest with a number of issues in developing the role of head-teachers. The public sector institutions have the Government governance regime and are highly bureaucratic hence the leaders are directed through rules – have no influence or vision – are pen pusher. The private sector is led by the head-teachers who exercise personal influence, have more powers to hire and fire and propose salary structure. The NGO and Trust also exercise considerable power and discipline, staff, management and finance. Here there is a hierarchy of structure dictated by salary levels. The Government structure is flat and has no incentive. There is more delegation at the NGO and Private School level. The issues of growth and vision are dealt by the heads in these schools but in public sector it is the delegated middle management who have no scope of providing inputs.

    Being a high power distance culture the hierarchy is a natural outcome of such thinking and hence boss takes all decisions. (Hofstede, 1991)

    Dependence on bosses is the norm. The conclusion that can be drawn from the Pakistan context is that national and community cultural determine the leadership aspect of the educational leaders. There are natural expectations from these leaders at all the three systems. But these are met according to the orientation of each system and further enhanced in its crudity by the personal orientation of the head-teachers. A successful head-teacher displays a philosophy and is able to implement it through his personal stamp.

    Furthermore in the word of Prof. Khwaja Masud who recommends that there is a crying need for decentralization in Pakistan within the department of education and within the institutions themselves. His formula is that the five senior most teachers should constitute the Administrative Council, dealing with all the academic, disciplinary, financial and developmental problems of the institutions. One of them should be designated as the Dean of Faculty, the second as the Dean of Students, the third, Bursar and the fourth as the Development Officer. Within that context are we ready to develop educational leadership? What is it that ails our educational environment? How can we bring about a transitional change for better quality and contemporary education? What leadership role should our Principals and Head-teachers adopt? How to bring in competent quality educational leaders into our education system? These are some of the questions that we need to find answers to in our subsequent research.

    Analysis of Facts and Resolution of Research Problems
    Ross and Gray (2006) had some elements in common with Day and Harris’s findings. However Ross and Gray specifically mentioned that it was the transformational leader that in theory and in practice produces that positive change in the educational institute. Day and Harris did not mention the term ‘transformational’, however it is clear from the traits that were mentioned such as being caring of the human element, values and culture that it is a transformational leader. Other evidences like the leader must go beyond the traditional managerial practices and developing the employee as much as the organization suggests a transformational approach.

    Henceforth the bottom line in this argument is that transformational leaders are required to produce effective results in educational institutes. What these two articles do not address is what characterizes as a positive transformational leader since the change produced could be positive or negative. The deduction is that a leader who worked very well in one institute would have a lot of trouble in different institute, given the change in scenario, culture, work ethics and environment. The leader’s adaptability to a different environment and ability to act are hence new variables that should be considered.

    Research Problem 1:
    This brings us to the Research Problems posed as number one

    But have they been successful in countries such as Pakistan? Paradoxically they are not, the reasons are easy to find. Pakistan is a highly bureaucratic society and has hierarchical structure and outmoded rules governing schools. Another factor for its lack of progress is seen in the cultural aspects as identified by Hofstede encouraging dependence, autocratic management styles & avoidance of risk, and no professional training.

    Simkin’s research would come in handy and here it should be discussed as whether a leader who has worked well in another environment can work well in Pakistan. In our judgment, this is very possible in this globalized era. In Pakistan’s urban educational institutes, students and teachers are aware of the western culture which could help the leader be accepted in the institute. Henceforth the chances of him being successful are greater. In the rural areas however, the schools and institutes operate in a different environment that is cut off from western culture. And in present times, there is an animosity present in the less educated class about West. Therefore there are greater chances for the Western transformational leader to fail in such a scenario. In this case then it would be wiser to train local transformational leaders and send them to bring about the change in the rural children.

    Now let’s take the case that a Western leader with transformational characteristics was asked to take control of a higher educational institute in Lahore. We will disregard any rural area institutes as they are too small to have a proper quality assurance policy. In this case it is very possible as sighted by Newton (2002) that the organization will face several problems. Matters such as suspicion, mistrust and the question of teacher autonomy can be very common issues faced by the administration. Now as a leader the head of the institution can make some policies that transform the institute to a Learning Organization. This will induce a cultural change that will induce leadership at all levels, straight to the teachers. And this is where the real impact can occur and the student achievement variable can improve. The teachers must take it upon themselves to become leaders and improve themselves in a continuous Japanese Kaizen approach.

    Research Problem 2: “What models of Educational Leadership Programs would be appropriate for Pakistan?”
    Jago explains that leadership is all about people and interaction between them. The quality of leadership greatly depends upon the quality of followership. We see the educational leadership includes a range of responsibility such as maintaining, discipline, public relations, faculty administrative relationship, accounts, maintenance, funds raising. He has to do this without being over bearing or haughty. He has to deal with personal problems of his teachers and students. The head teacher has to be caring and emphasize human dimension. Finally they must believe in values and cultural change and adaptable to a learning organization. This in fact is almost job description and calls for bottom line standard.

    How can such a model be designed for Pakistan. A study by Simkin et al. ‘School Leadership in Pakistan’ explained school leadership and developed three case studies.

    It was brought out that national culture was the important variable that influences leadership behavior.

    The Pakistani culture was examined through the prism of Hofstede Cultural dimension. It was discovered in the Pakistan scenario the head of the educational institution is doomed to function between ‘an era which is dead and an era which refuses to be born’. He is confronted with two explosions: explosion of change and explosion of expectation.

    But the study established that if such factors were considered while formulating future plans, those principals if given the autonomy may provide an indirect effect on the institutions in Pakistan. This will lead to good learning and positive student achievement and satisfaction.

    Research Problem 3: “Quality Assurance is an aspect of Educational Leadership, it is a missing link in Pakistan?”
    The stress is on the importance of quality in recent times due to the state demanding accountability of its educational institutions. Research has revealed that quality of education leadership depends on how schools are managed not resources. The other aspect is the quality of leadership provided by head- teachers and principals. The issues confronted in Pakistan after the initial reforms introduced in early 2000 were because traditional modes of bureaucratic organizations have a strong hold on the minds and perception of the people and head teachers. Hence decentralization has failed. In the current changing world of, knowledge, academic research is one of the major parameters for the development of any country. In Pakistan unfortunately quality academic research is at low priority of the academicians and institutions. Focus of the current study is to finalize a mechanism for producing quality research at higher education institutes of Pakistan.

    In Pakistan there are many problems related to system, structure, culture and leadership while producing quality research. Academic research must be given top priority at every level to develop an environment of academic research.

    Having done this, all the quality assurance should also have a Kaizen approach that suits the continuous improvement of teachers. The teachers will also demand autonomy in their work. This should be accepted with the mutual agreement that some form of improvement should be made in the teaching style and overall student satisfaction/performance.

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  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Methods
  • Discussion
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Conclusion
    In summary, there is a severe shortage of principals in Pakistan that have the vision and ability to lead an educational institution to change. The reason is that principals are not selected on merits of leadership traits nor trained as principals. It is important for educational policymakers to reflect on findings from this research and devise strategies to recruit high quality educational, school leaders. But the most important step should be to lay down a standard procedure for selection.

    Another important finding of this study is that Pakistani school principals tends to be less educated having lower degree but more senior in experience. This is indicative of the fact that seniority is more important than university degree or higher education. Whereas what is important is to introduce a curriculum of preparing a principal inclusive of his growth and responsibility of the job.

    There has been a debate for years that whether or not people should get adequate preparation for the principalship at university campus, or the preparation of leadership is on-the-job experience (Young & Castetter, 2003). The educational policymakers will have to wakeup to the facts through comparative study that they have to focus on producing principals or headteachers, who are committed to meeting the challenges of the 21st century and the knowledge economy.

    Based on cultural impact and conventional products it seems that it is hard to break away from ‘policy-mechanic’ paradigm which aims at a standard-wide solution through key resources inputs. The more doable and successful model seems to be a ‘classroom-culturalist’ model – the change management at school level. As we have discussed in the paper that, quality of education depends on how schools are managed not resources. This eventually is influenced by quality of leadership. But the challenge is to produce a professional principal or leader even prior to his taking over.

    The literature review offers great insight into modern understanding of leadership in schools and the role that principals and teachers play in the development of students. Pakistan, the most discussed country in the Asian region, is passing through the phase of development and striving for sustainability in every sector. One of the important sectors in Pakistan is the education sector which also serves as a nursery that provides quality human input to almost all the sectors. The role of institutes of higher learning is more important as they contribute to the country through knowledge and research. If the culture of research is developed and proper guidance and leadership provided, producing quality research is not a dream in a country like Pakistan.

    In my concluding remarks, my suggestion is that making an institute better and more successful through quality assurance schemes is definitely possible. However such procedural accountability and consistent monitoring can have its drawbacks. Therefore a framework must be established that can take teachers and front line academic instructors into consideration so that they don’t feel hindered in their work. Because we must agree that it is the teachers that do the teaching, while the principal creates a suitable environment to facilitate teaching. A learning organization coupled with a Kaizen quality improvement approach can be a possible win-win situation.

    RECOMMENDATION
    Hence there is a need to move towards decentralization:

    • There is a need to empower Head-teacher under loose control.
    • There is also the need to empower parents for full involvement in the planning and supervision and implementation.
    • That there is the need for grooming local managers and also to educate local managers for visionary leadership.
    • Prime responsibility must be placed with schools.
    • Need to develop non-traditional managerial skills of headteacher.

    Though these have yet to be tested in developing countries like Pakistan but this risk element is essential.

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  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Methods
  • Discussion
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • References

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  • Top
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Methods
  • Discussion
  • Conclusion
  • References
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