2016, Cilt 6, Sayı 3, Sayfa(lar) 326-333
Examination of Attitudes towards Profession and Self-Efficacy Beliefs of Pedagogical Formation Students
Murat ÖZDEMİR1, Ebru DEMİRCİOĞLU2
1Hacettepe University, Faculty of Education, Department of Educational Sciences, Ankara, Turkey
2Çankırı Karatekin University, Faculty of Education, Department of Educational Sciences, Çankırı, Turkey
Keywords: Proficiency self-efficacy beliefs, Attitudes towards teaching profession, Pedagogical formation
The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between attitudes towards the teaching proficiency and self-efficacy
belief of the pedagogical formation students. For this purpose 508 pedagogic formation students from Çankırı Karatekin University and
Hacettepe University participated in the study. Participants filled in the “Scale for Proficiency Self-Efficacy Beliefs” and “Scale for Attitudes
toward Teaching Profession”. Both of the scales were checked for whether they are valid and reliable. To investigate if the scales were
valid, confirmatory factor analysing was used and seen that the both scale is valid. In order to understand whether the scales are reliable,
Cronbach alpha coefficient were calculated and detected that the both scales are reliable. Collected data from the participants were firstly
analysed with descriptive statistical techniques including arithmetical means, standard deviations and the value of percentage. To examine
the relationship between attitudes towards teaching profession and profession self-efficacy beliefs Pearson correlation coefficient were
used. To examine if the self–efficacy beliefs is the significant predictor of the attitudes towards the teaching profession multiple regression
was used. Results showed that participants' opinions about their attitudes towards the teaching profession are positive. Besides this, it
was seen that participants' self-efficacy beliefs on profession is relatively high. Correlation analyses indicated that there is low, positively
and significant relations between proficiency self-efficacy beliefs and attitudes towards teaching profession. Regression results revealed
that proficiency self-efficacy is a significant predictor of the attitudes towards the teaching profession. However, it was observed that
proficiency self-efficacy beliefs explain the little portion of the variance in attitudes towards teaching profession.
In Turkey, the teacher education policy and practices have a
history of more than sixty years. During the past years, the rise
in population and the rapid upward trend in schooling rates
have prompted governments and the education bureaucracy
to conduct new searches in the teacher training policies in
every period. Both in the Ottoman Empire’s final period and
in the Republican period, teacher training task was fulfilled
by the ministries responsible for education. For example, the
teachers needed at primary and secondary education levels
during the Republican period were trained and employed
in the institutions affiliated to Ministry of National Education
(MEB). However, in certain branches needed since the
beginning of Republican period, it was seen that the teacher
appointments were carried out with the graduates of higher
education institutions (Kavcar,2002). The duty of teacher training
in the country was taken from MEB and transferred to
education faculties in 1980s. During these years, it was seen
that the country’s need for teachers could not be met by the
education faculties, and as an exceptional application, a legal
regulation was issued so that the graduates of the faculties of
arts and sciences could work as teachers. In this regard, The
Turkish Higher Education Council (YOK) decided that it would
be sufficient for those who did not graduate from the education
faculty to pass the Pedagogical Formation Education Certificate
Program so that they could obtain the teaching title.
Thus, the graduates of the faculties of arts and sciences with
a bachelor’s degree were able to obtain the teacher title by
receiving formation training. Finally, the final regulations of
YOK paved the way for students’ enrollment in formation programs
regardless of the programs from which they graduated
as long as they met the compulsory conditions (YOK, 2010).
With the pedagogical formation training that YOK has put into
practice, those who complete this program successfully get a
teaching title and can be appointed as teachers to the schools
affiliated to MEB depending on the result of the Public Personnel
Selection Examination of Turkey (KPSS). Therefore, in
the process of pedagogical formation training, it is aimed to
equip the teacher candidates with competencies peculiar to
the teaching profession. The teaching profession is defined as
“a specialization profession that takes the administrative tasks
related to the education and training of the government” in
Article 43 of the National Education Basic Law No. 1739. In
this context, it is important for the teacher candidates to have
the knowledge and skills that the profession requires so that
they can play the role expected from them effectively. Teachers
need to have a positive attitude towards the profession
and a ‘self-efficacy belief’ in order to effectively play the role
the profession requires. As a matter of fact, previous studies
produced findings in support of this argument. It is seen that
the studies on the prospective teachers’ attitudes towards the
teaching profession were carried out mostly with the students
enrolled in undergraduate programs in the faculty of education
(Bozdoğan, Aydın & Yıldırım, 2007; Bulut & Doğar, 2006; Çapa
& Çil, 2000; Çapri & Çelikkaleli, 2008; Oral, 2004). On the other
hand, in several literature reviews, the attitudes of the students
continuing their education in non-thesis master’s programs towards the profession were found to be examined as a topic
of research (Çakır, Kan & Sünbül, 2006; Gürbüz & Kışoğlu, 2007;
Şimşek, 2005). There were studies, albeit limited in number,
on the attitudes of teacher candidates continuing their pedagogical
formation training towards the profession (Demircioğlu
& Özdemir, 2014; Kartal & Afacan, 2013). The teacher candidates’
professional self- efficacy beliefs were also important
for them to play the roles required by the profession. Previous
work carried out in this context produced consistent results
with this argument (Çakıroğlu & Işıksal, 2009; Ekici, 2008;
Gürbüztürk & Şad, 2009; Morgil, Seçken & Yücel, 2004; Oğuz &
Topkaya, 2008). The studies focusing on the professional selfefficacy
perceptions of teacher candidates who continue their
pedagogical formation training seemed to be limited (Çocuk,
Yokuş & Tanrıseven, 2005). In other literature reviews, it was
observed that the relationship between the attitude towards
the teaching profession and self-efficacy was also investigated.
These studies were carried out predominantly with undergraduate
students studying in the faculties of education. Arastaman
(2013) who conducted one of those studies carried out his
research with the senior students of the faculty of education,
arts and sciences. The sample of Demirtaş, Cömert and Özer
(2011) conducting a similar study included the senior students
of the education faculty. In the review of literature done by
the researchers of this study, no studies were located which
examined the relationship between attitudes of teacher candidates
who received pedagogical formation training towards
the teaching profession and their self-efficacy perceptions.
Therefore, it is believed that there is a gap in the literature as
to how the relationship between attitudes towards the teaching
profession and self-efficacy beliefs is seen in pedagogical
formation students. Apart filling this gap in the literature, this
work may also be a relative contribution to the evaluation of
formation training practice. The discovery of the relationship
between teacher candidates’ attitudes towards the profession
and their self-efficacy beliefs can give clues as to how candidates
with future eligibility and self-efficacy will be taught onsite.
In the following section, the conceptual development and
ramework of the attitude towards the teaching profession and
the self-efficacy belief are examined and then the aim of the
research and its sub-problems are presented.
Attitudes Towards Teaching Profession
Attitudes are psychological structures that include cognitive,
emotional, and psychomotor behaviours that shape behaviour
(Anderson, 1988). Attitude is also taken as positive or negative
content opinion about another person, object or event at
the same time. Thus, there are three aspects of cognition: cognitive,
affective and psychomotor. The cognitive aspect of the
attitude is related to the knowledge possessed of the attitude
object. The knowledge that a teacher candidate has regarding
the know-how of teaching is an example of the cognitive
dimension of attitude. The affective aspect of attitude includes
positive or negative feelings about the object of attitude. For
example, whether a teacher candidate likes or does not like
his/her students constitutes the affective aspect of attitude.
The cognitive and affective aspects of attitude cause people to behave in certain ways. These behaviors compose the psychomotor
aspect of attitude (Baron & Byrne, 1987). A teacher’s
patience and tolerance towards his students can be seen as
a behavioural indicator of his positive attitude towards the
It is expected that teacher candidates should have a positive
attitude towards the profession so that they can exhibit
the behaviour required by the teaching profession based on
these definitions and dimensions of the attitude (Erdem &
Anılan, 2000). Smith (1968) made another definition of attitude.
Accordingly, attitude is “a tendency which is attributed
to an individual and constitutes his/her thoughts, feelings,
and behaviours related to a psychological object regularly”
(Kağıtçıbaşı,1988). Based on this definition, it can be considered
that teacher efficiency in educational environments can
be associated with attitudes towards the profession at large.
As a matter of fact, in a study, it was reported that the teachers
who had a positive attitude towards the profession had a
high performance related to education and instruction (Lapido,
1984; Lubis, 1988). Previous research suggests that teacher
candidates had positive attitudes towards the teaching profession
(Bulut & Doğar, 2006; Çapa & Çil, 2000; Çapri & Çelikkaleli,
2008; Oral, 2004). It has also revealed that teacher candidates’
attitudes towards the teaching profession were an important
predictor of teaching motivation (Ayık & Ataş, 2014).
It is important that pedagogical formation students have selfefficacy
belief in the teaching profession in order to be able to
effectively play the role that the profession needs in the future.
There is a significant contribution of Bandura to the conceptualization
Bandura (1997) examined the concept of self-efficacy as a
belief that individuals can accomplish a particular task. Accordingly,
the individuals with a strong self-efficacy belief do not run
away from the difficulties they face, but on the contrary, they
are resolutely on top of problems to cope with this difficulty.
Conversely, those who have weak self-efficacy beliefs experience
tension and stress at work. This affects their performance
negatively. Self-efficacy when addressed in terms of teaching
profession is dealt with as a belief related to whether a teacher
has the potential or ability to reach his / her learning output at
the required level (Tschannen-Moran & Woolfolk Hoy, 2001).
Similarly, Guskey and Passaro (1994) define self-efficacy as a
teachers’ self-belief about training his/her students effectively.
The fact that teachers have self-efficacy beliefs is said to lead to
some important consequences in educational settings. Among
these are students’ academic achievement, their motivation,
teachers’ motivation for learning about the developments in
their fields and the increase in their commitment to school
included (Sunjin, 2010). According to Allinder (1994), teachers
with self-efficacy beliefs exhibit a high degree of planning and
organizing skills. In addition, it is indicated that teachers with
high levels of self-efficacy beliefs do not give up easily in the
solution of problems and resist against these problems to a
great extent (Ashton & Webb,1986). Teachers with self-efficacy
beliefs are quite eager for teaching (Guskey, 1984).
The Relationship Between Attitudes Towards Teaching Profession
and Self-efficacy Beliefs
Teacher candidates’ attitudes towards the teaching profession
will determine how they will behave when performing
their profession. It can be assumed that a teacher candidate
who develops a positive attitude towards the profession will
endeavor to fulfill his profession effectively when he/she
becomes a teacher. Under these circumstances, it can be considered
that a teacher candidate’ self-efficacy belief regarding
the profession has an important influence on the development
of a positive attitude towards teaching. It has been reported
that there is a significant relationship between teacher candidates’
attitudes towards self-efficacy beliefs and their attitudes
towards teaching profession (Demirtaş, Cömert & Özer, 2011).
Similarly, in the study of Arastaman (2013), professional selfefficacy
belief was found to be a significant predictor of attitudes
towards the teaching profession.
The establishment of a theoretical relationship between the
attitude towards the profession and the self-efficacy beliefs
and the fact that this argument is supported by empirical studies
reinforce the assumption that the relationship between
the two variables may also apply to pedagogical formation
students. In previous studies on pedagogical formation students,
participants reported positive attitudes towards the
teaching profession (Demircioğlu & Özdemir, 2014). A possible
reason for the positive attitudes of these students may be
their strong self-efficacy beliefs that they can carry out their
profession effectively. For this reason, the prediction of the
current research is that there may be a statistically relationship
between the attitudes of the formation students towards the
teaching profession and their professional self-efficacy.
The Purpose of the Study
The general purpose of this study is to examine the relationship
between attitudes towards the teaching profession and
professional self-efficacy beliefs based on the views of students
receiving pedagogical formation education at Hacettepe
University and Çankırı Karatekin University in the 2015-2016
academic year. The sub-problems of research in accordance
with this aim are as follows;
1. How are the attitudes of prospective teachers towards
the teaching profession and their professional self-efficacy
2. Is there a relationship between the attitudes of teacher
candidates towards the teaching profession and their professional
3. Is professional self-efficacy belief a significant predictor of
teachers’ attitudes towards the teaching profession?
This research which describes the attitudes of prospective
teachers to the teaching profession and their beliefs about
professional self-efficacy was designed as a relational survey
method. The collected data were analysed by using quantitative
508 students who received pedagogical formation education
at Hacettepe University and Çankırı Karatekin University in
2015-2016 academic year participated in the study. There were
107 students from Hacettepe University and 401 students from
Çankırı Karatekin University. 76% of the students (n = 384) were
female, 24% (n = 124) were male; 90% were in the age range
of 20-25 years (n = 459), 7% in the age range of 26-30 years
(n = 36), 2% in the age range of 31-35 years (n = 10) and on
the age range (n = 3). 81% of the students were undergraduate
senior students (n = 413) and 19% were undergraduates (n =
95). 14% of the participants were philosophical (n = 73), 13%
were history (n = 67), 3% were mathematics (n = 15) 13), 10%
were nursing (n = 54), 0.5% were ceramics (n = 2), 15% were literature
(n = 78), 7% were sociology (N = 38), 2% graphic design
(n = 11), 0.2% economics (n = 1), 2.5% food engineering (n =
12) = 4), 0.8% for political science and public administration (n
= 4), 0.2% for chemical engineering (n = 1), 8% for biology (n =
39), 4% for English language and literature (N = 21), 1% American
culture and literature (n = 7), 3% English translation and
interpreting (n = 13) and 4% child development (n = 21). 93%
of the participants were single (n = 474), 7% were married (n =
34). Monthly incomes are listed as follows: 72% of participants
were 500-1000 lira (n = 368), 9% were 1001-1500 lira (n = 48),
5% were 1501-2000 lira (n = 23) 3% were 2001-2500 liras (n =
15), 5% were 2501-3.000 liras (n = 23) and 6% were 3001 and
over (n = 31).
Data Collection Tools
Two different data collection instruments were used in the
research; Attitude Scale Toward Teaching Profession and Vocational
Self-efficacy beliefs scale.
Attitude Scale Toward Teaching Profession
In order to measure the attitudes of prospective teachers
towards the teaching profession, the Attitudes Towards Teaching
Profession (ATTP) scale developed by Çetin (2006) was used
in the research. The scale consisted of 35 items and was a 5
point Likert type. As a result of the factor analysis conducted
to determine the validity of the scale, the factor loadings of
the scale items ranged from 0.48 to 0.80 and the Kaiser-Meyer
Olkin (KMO) value was calculated to be 0.95. The scale consisted
of three sub-dimensions which were love, value and
harmony. Negative items in the scale were calculated through
reverse scoring. Variance ratios explained for each factor of
the scale were 29.6% for the love subdimension, 12.2% for the
value subscale, 9.4% for the fit subdimension, and 51.2% of the
total variance was explained by the scale. The Cronbach alpha
value of the scale varied between 0.76-0.95 (Çetin, 2006).
Professional Self-efficacy Beliefs Scale
In the study, the self-efficacy beliefs of the pedagogical formation
trainees towards the teaching profession were measured
by the Professional Self-efficacy Beliefs scale (PSB). Developed
by Tschannen-Moran and Hoy (2001), this scale was adapted to
Turkish by Çapa, Çakıroglu and Sarıkaya (2005). The scale consisted
of three sub-dimensions and 24 items, namely student participation, instructional strategies and classroom management.
The Student Participation sub-dimension included items
related to how teachers motivate students in making school
events whereas the dimension of instructional strategies
covered the items related to how teachers can implement the
teaching principles and methods during instruction. The classroom
management dimension, on the other hand, consisted
of items related to how teachers can control the undesirable
behaviors in the classroom. The Cronbach’s alpha reliability
values for these dimensions were 0.82, 0.86 and 0.84; respectively.
The Likert scale was ranked as ranging from “inadequate”
(1) to “highly qualified” (9).
In this study, the validity and reliability analyses of both scales
were repeated. Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) was conducted
to check construct validity while Cronbach’s alpha reliability
coefficient was used for reliability. The goodness of fit
statistics obtained as a result of CFA on the three-dimensional
structure of the ATTP scale were: [χ2 = 1024.23, Sd = 557, p
<0.05; GF = 0.97; CFI = 0.96; AGFI = 0.96; RMSEA = 0.04]. χ2/
sd ratio was 1.83 and other adaptation indices produce perfect
harmonization values. Internal consistency coefficients calculated
for each subscale and sum of the scale were as follows:
ATTP (love) = 0.90, ATTP (value) = 0.80, ATTP (harmony) = 0.73,
ATTP (total) = 0.90. According to these results, the Cronbach’s
alpha values for each subscale of the ATTP scale are above the
acceptable limit value of 0.70 (Anastasi, 1982). The CFA result
for the three-dimensional structure of the PSB scale is the fit
goodness statistics obtained: [χ2 = 1071.51, Sd = 245, p <0.05;
GFI = 0.85; CFI = 0.98; AGFI = 0.82; RMSEA = 0.08]. Χ2/sd ratio
is 4.37 and other adaptation indices produce good agreement
values. The internal consistency coefficients calculated for
each subscale and sum of the scale are as follows: PSBstudent participation
= 0.86; PSBcurriculum strategies = 0.86; PSBManagement of the class = 0.87;
PSBtoplam = 0.94. Reliability indices are above the critical value of
0.70 (Anastasi, 1982). As evidence of validity and reliability on
both scales, it has been decided that they are valid, valid and
reliable measurement tools for use in the current research.
Analysis of Data
Arithmetic mean and standard deviation values, Pearson
Moments Multiplication Correlation Coefficient and multiple
linear regressions analyses were used for the purpose of the
study. The Pearson Moments Multiplication Correlation
Coefficient analysis was conducted to test whether there is
a meaningful relationship between the attitudes of the prospective
teachers towards the teaching profession and their
professional self-efficacy beliefs. Whether the professional
self-efficacy beliefs of prospective teachers were a significant
predictor of pedagogical formation students’ attitudes towards
teaching profession was tested by multiple linear regression
analysis. Before the mentioned analyses were performed,
whether the data set provided multivariate statistical assumptions
was examined. The values of skewness and kurtosis were
between 0 and ± 1, indicating that the distribution of the data
set for both scales was normal. Unidirectional extreme values
of the data set were examined. For one-way extreme values,
z scores of individuals were calculated, and it was seen that z
scores did not take values other than ± 3 values (ZmaxATTP = 2.73, ZminATTP = -2.72, ZmaxPSB = 1.87, ZminPSB = -2.99). Binary correlations
of variables with multiple connections between variables were
calculated and it was found that there was no multiple connection
problem (rATTP-PSB = 0.17). In addition, the presence or
absence of multiple links was checked by examining the VIF
values obtained as a result of the regression analysis. VIF values
below 5.00 confirmed that there was no multiple connectivity
problem in the research data (VIFATTP = 4.81, VIFPSB = 2.64). All
analyses in the research process were carried out through SPSS
20.00 and LISREL 9.01 package programs.
The statistical information on the attitudes of prospective
teachers towards the teaching profession and their professional
self-efficacy beliefs and the coefficients of correlation
between the dimensions of the variables are given in Table 1
When the mean and standard deviation values of teachers’
attitudes towards teachers’ professions and professional
self- efficacy beliefs in Table 1 were examined, it was seen
that participants’ average score of attitude towards teaching
profession was 3.25; The average score of love sub-dimension
was 3.07; Value of the value sub-dimension was 4.33 and that
of the compliance sub-dimension was 2.29. According to these
findings, it can be stated that the attitudes of the students
towards the teaching profession were above the moderate
level in total and in affection and value sub-dimensions and
had a positive direction. The adaptation sub-dimension was
moderate and positive. The average score of the students’
professional self-efficacy beliefs was 6.56; the average score of
the student participation sub- dimension was 6.52; the average
of the instructional strategies sub-dimension was 6.58 and the
score of the class management sub-dimension was 6.57. These
findings indicated that the professional self-efficacy beliefs of
the prospective teachers were above the moderate level and
positive in total and in sub-dimensions.
According to Table 1, there was a significant positive but weak
relationship between the attitudes of the prospective teachers
towards the teaching profession and the professional
self-efficacy beliefs (RATTP-PSB = 0.17, p <0.01). In addition, a positive
and significant relationship was found between the love
subdimension of ATTP and student participation subdimension
of PSB (r=0.10, p <0.01) and ditto between curriculum strategies
(r = 0.11, p <0.01) and classroom management (r = 0.10,
p <0.01) is determined. There was a significant, positive relationship
between the value subdimension of ATTP and student
participation (r= 0.41, p <0.01), teaching strategies (r = 0.39, p
<0.01) and classroom management (r = 0.38, p <0.01) which
are among the subdimensions of PSB. Finally, a significant
negative relationship was found between the subdimensions
of adaptation subdimension of ATTP and such subdimensions
of PMD (r = -0.26, p <0.01) as teaching strategies (r = -0.25, p
<0.01) and classroom management (r = -0.28, p < 0.01).
A multiple linear regression analysis was conducted to test
whether the prospective teachers’ professional self-efficacy
beliefs were a significant predictor of their attitudes towards
the teaching profession and the findings of data anaylsis are
presented in Table 2.
When Table 2 was examined, it was seen that teacher candidates’
professional self-efficacy beliefs was a significant predictor
of their attitudes towards the teaching profession (F = 6.05,
p <.05). Self-efficacy belief, however, accounted for 3% of the
variance in attitude scores (R2 = .03). However, not all of the
three sub-dimensions of occupational self-efficacy are a significant
predictor of occupational attitudes: individual (student)
participation (β = 0.12, p> .05), teaching strategies (β=0.09;
p>.05), and classroom management (β=-0.02; p>.05).
In this study, the relationship between the occupational selfefficacy
status of the participants and their attitudes towards
the teaching profession was examined based on the opinions
of 508 students who participated in pedagogical formation
education in 2015-2016 educational years at the two state universities.
For this purpose, the collected data were analysed by
descriptive statistics as well as by regression analysis. Analyses
have shown that the participants’ professional self-efficacy
beliefs were above the moderate level. In previous studies, it
was found that participants’ professional self-efficacy beliefs
were relatively high (Yeşilyurt, 2013). A likely reason for the
high level of professional self-efficacy of prospective teachers
may be that they prefered the teaching profession. It can be
considered as an expected finding that the teacher candidates
having the willingness to become a teacher feel themselves
competent in their field.
The second finding of the research was that the participants’
attitudes towards the teaching profession were also positive.
Descriptive statistics showed that the participants had points
at and above moderate level in all subdimensions of attitudes
towards the profession. This finding in the study seemed to be
consistent with the findings obtained in previous studies. For
example, Çapa and Çil (2000), who conducted similar research,
found that participants’ attitudes towards the profession
were positive and above the moderate level. In addition, it
was determined that the attitudes of the participants towards
the teaching profession were positive in the attitude research
conducted by Terzi and Tezci (2007) with the education faculty
students. Evaluated as a whole, it seems that the prospective
teachers’ attitudes towards the profession were positive. A
possible reason for this could be the social reputation of the
profession. From early ages, students witness the approval
of teaching profession by the society. This situation may have
shaped the prospective teachers’ attitudes towards the profession
positively. In addition, it is an expected situation that students
with a positive attitude towards the teaching profession
choose it as their university preference.
In this research, the relationship between professional selfefficacy
beliefs and attitudes towards teaching profession were
examined. As a result of the correlation analysis, it was found
that there is a significant positive but weak correlation between
the two variables. When we looked at similar research results,
it was seen that different results were found. For example, it
can be said that the findings obtained in this study were consistent
with the findings of Demirtaş, Cömert and Özer (2011).
In the study, it was revealed that there was a significant but low relationship between the two variables. However, in Çapri
and Çelikkaleli’s (2008) study, it was found that there was a
significant and relatively higher correlation between the two
variables. Similarly, in Oguz and Topkaya’s (2008) research, a
relatively high correlation was found between research variables.
Possible reasons for the difference between the above
mentioned studies may be sample differences. One possible
reason for the weak relationship between the two variables
in our study may be that the participants were formation students.
Formation students get undergraduate education in the
faculty of arts and sciences in non-teaching areas. However,
due to the lack of work and similar reasons, formation students
can turn to teaching profession. Therefore, participants may
have a sense of incompetence due to being away from the
profession even if they have a positive attitude towards the
occupation. This can be considered as a possible reason for the
weak correlation between the two variables.
Finally, the research also examined whether professional selfefficacy
belief was a significant predictor of attitudes towards
the teaching profession. The results of the regression analysis
showed that professional self-efficacy belief was a significant
predictor of attitudes towards the teaching profession; but
self-efficacy beliefs accounted for only little of the variability
in attitudes towards the profession. This finding was consistent
with previous studies. For example, it was parallel to the findings
of Arastaman’s (2013) study in which it was also reported
that a very small fraction of the variance in attitudes towards
the teaching profession was explained by self-efficacy beliefs.
Together with Arastaman’s findings, it can be concluded that
professional self-efficacy belief was insufficient to explain the
attitude towards the profession.
In this study focusing on the relationship between the attitudes
of pedagogical formation students towards teaching profession
and their professional self-efficacy beliefs, it was concluded
that the participants’ attitudes towards teaching profession
and their professional self-efficacy beliefs were relatively high.
However, the relationship between professional self-efficacy
beliefs and attitudes towards teaching profession was weak as
contrary to the expectations. Moreover, the influence of the
teacher candidates’ self-efficacy beliefs about the teaching
profession on their occupational attitudes was limited. Thus,
there can be other factors that affect attitudes towards the
This research was conducted at two state universities that provided
pedagogical training. Similar research can be extended
to cover more universities. In this study, attitudes towards
the teaching profession was accounted for by occupational
self-efficacy beliefs only at a low level. For this reason, qualitative
studies that will explore the factors influencing attitude
towards the profession may be an appropriate choice in further
research. It may also be suggested that future research
focusing on the relationship between the two variables is carried
out on larger groups.
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