Organizational commitment is one of the major research topics
of todays world. In the literature, numerous studies on this topic
can be found. When a brief literature review is made, salary will
be seen as one of the most important factors that affect organizational
commitment. Salary factor affects the employees
organizational commitment in many ways. This study focuses on
the size of the fee, which is one of the factors affecting organizational commitment. Since the improvement on the salaries
of academicians is commonly called academic salary increase,
this improvement is analyzed under the name of academic
salary increase. A total of 237 questionnaires were analyzed in
this study. Factor analysis was used to determine the results of
the survey. We have two hypotheses about the organizational
commitment. The findings are presented along with the results
discussed in the literature.
What is Organizational Commitment?
The number of studies on organizational commitment
increased with the work called Organization Man by William
Whyte. In his work, Whyte pointed out the dangers of excessive
commitment and he defined organization man as a person
who not only works for his organisation but also belongs to it.
Whyte believes that employees are the source of creativity in
groups and the individuals sense of belonging is the ultimate
need (Randall, 1987). In literature, it is possible to find out
various definitions of the term, commitment. Şengül Doğan
(2013), described the term commitment as an emotional tendency
towards the organization, awareness of the cost after
leaving the organization, and moral obligation that helps an
individual to stay in the organization. According to Çetin Ölçüm,
organizational commitment refers to psychological commitment
of an individual to organization including attendance to
work, loyalty, and faithfulness in organizational values (Çetin
Ölçüm, 2004). In his study, Bayram (2005), defined the term
organizational commitment as employees loyal attitude to the
organization, and interest that they have regarding the success
of their organizations that they work for. According to Bayram,
organizational changes like individual variants such as age
and seniority in the organization, job design, and leadership
qualifications of the administrator play important role in the
commitment to an organization (Bayram, 2005). According to
Meyer and Allen, the common point of different definitions of
organizational commitment is a psychological condition that,
a) describes the relationship of the employee towards the
b) indicates the decision of the organization regarding whether
to remain as a member (Meyer & Allen, 1997; Şengül
Porter, Steers, Mowday, & Boulian (1974) defined organizational
commitment as a persons identification and ability to
participate in a particular organization. According to this definition,
there are three basic elements of organizational commitment:
1. Acceptance of an individuals values and goals of the organization
with strong faith,
2. Individuals more important efforts for the organization,
3. Individuals decisive desire to protect their membership in
According to Ayyildiz, Yuksel & Hancer (2007), organizational
commitment refers to an individuals psychological commitment
that includes elements such as joining to an organization,
loyalty, and faith in organizational values. Besides, Ayyıldız et al.
(2007), describes organizational commitment as a three-stage
process. These stages are as follows (Ayyıldız et al., 2007):
1. Compliance Stage: At this stage, the individual acknowledges
to be affected by other individuals after getting
2. Identity Discovery Stage: In this stage, the individual
acknowledges the influence of others in order to be proud of belonging to the organization and create a satisfactory
3. Internalization Stage: In this stage, people discover that
the values of the organization are appropriate for their
individual values and the values of the organization itself
provide intrinsic rewards.
The Importance of Organizational Commitment
In todays world, the effective use of resources poses a major
challenge for organizations. Because of this, organizations usually
intend to reduce the high cost caused by employee turnover
rate and try to increase the commitment of employees
to ensure continuity. It is believed that faithful employees will
work harder and make more self-sacrifices in order to reach
the organizational goals. Researches studies show that commitment
reduces the cost caused by high employee turnover
rate (Meyer & Allen, 2004).
According to Şengül Doğan (2013), understanding the organizational
commitment better not only makes employees happier
and productive, but also makes the information obtained
while studying the forms of commitment to be spread to other
areas. On the other hand, the level of ties of the individuals
to their organization that they belong to affects the society in
general (Şengül Doğan, 2013: 70). In their studies, Mathieu and
Zajac (1990) announced the factors that reveal organizational
commitment as follows (Mathieu & Zajac, 1990):
Personal characteristics (age, gender, education, skills, salary,
Role status (role ambiguity, role conflict, role overload)
Job characteristics (skills, autonomy, scope of work)
Group/leader relationship (group cohesion, solidarity mission,
a leading authority structure, the dignity of the leader,
the leader-group relations, participatory leadership)
Organizational characteristics (size and degree of centralization
of the organization)
In this study, a survey was conducted regarding the salaries of
the personal characteristics that influence organizational commitment.
A Research on the Effect of Salary on Academicians Levels of
Method of Study
The aim of this research was to find out the effect of salary
increase on academicians organizational behaviour. 327 academicians
participated in this survey. The questionnaire used
in the study consisted of two parts. In the first part, there
were demographic factors, and in the second part, there were
questions to measure the organizational commitment. The
scale used for organizational commitment was pretested and
adapted by a study conducted by Allen and Meyer (1990),
and asked properly in accordance with the objectives of the
research. In the reliability analysis of the survey, the questions
numbered 11 and 18 were excluded from the survey because
they were considered to lower the reliability of the survey.
Reliability analysis results are as follows:
Cronbachs Alpha reliability of the survey rose by 0.739.
Demographic Research Results
A total of 237 people participated in the study. 43.5% of the
participants were women and 56.5% were men.
The ages of the participants in the study were as follows.
7.6% between 18-25 years old, 26-35 years old 70.5%, 13.5%
between 36-45 years, and 46-55 over the age of 56 years and
older was 6.3 and 2.1%. It was observed that the age of the
participants of this study was between 35 and 26 wt.
When we looked at the departments of the respondents, 55.7%
of the respondents are working in faculty, 5.5% are working at research institute, 14.8% and 24.1% worked in higher education
in vocational colleges.
When we look at the period of time they work, the percentage
of the participants who worked for less than a year was 8.4%.
The percentage of those who worked between 1-5 years was
54.9%. 18.6% of the participants worked between 6-10 years,
the percentage of the attendants who worked between 11-15
years is 10.5%, and the percentage of the employees working
for 15+ years was 7.6%.
The titles of the participants in this study showed the distribution
as follows. 3.8% of them were doctors; the doctor lecturers
were at 4.2%, 32.5% were teaching assistants, 46.4% of
them were research assistants.
As for the region they live in, 26.6% of respondents surveyed
were in Central Anatolia, 14.7% of them were in Black Sea,
1.8% were in Aegean, 4.6%, were in Marmara, 19.7% were in
Eastern Anatolia, 12.2% and 7.6% were in South-Eastern Anatolia
and in Mediterranean region.