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2016, Cilt 6, Sayı 3, Sayfa(lar) 359-363
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DOI: 10.5961/jhes.2016.172
A Research on the Effect of Salary on Academicians' Levels of Organizational Commitment
Ebru ÖZER1, H. Serdar YALÇINKAYA2
1Necmettin Erbakan University, Academy of Applied Sciences, Department of Accounting and Financial Management, Konya, Turkey
2Necmettin Erbakan University, Ereğli Kemal Akman Vocational School, Department of Accounting and Taxation, Konya, Turkey
Keywords: Organizational behaviour, Organizational comminment, Salary, Academic
Abstract
When a study of literature made on the factors affecting organizational commitment, many different elements are seen to affect organizational commitment. One of these factors is the price received by the employees. This study aims to measure the impact of Higher Education Personnel Law No. 2914 which has provided an increase in academics' salary on organizational commitment of academics. The first part of the study is focused on the concept of organizational commitment, whereas the second part is focused on the organizational commitment questionnaire survey evaluation of faculty members working in Turkey. As a result, it was observed that academics had organizational commitment before the increase in salary and their organizational commitment to their institution stepped up after the increase.
  • Top
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Results
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Introduction
    Organizational commitment is one of the major research topics of today’s world. In the literature, numerous studies on this topic can be found. When a brief literature review is made, salary will be seen as one of the most important factors that affect organizational commitment. Salary factor affects the employees’ organizational commitment in many ways. This study focuses on the size of the fee, which is one of the factors affecting organizational commitment. Since the improvement on the salaries of academicians is commonly called “academic salary increase”, this improvement is analyzed under the name of “academic salary increase”. A total of 237 questionnaires were analyzed in this study. Factor analysis was used to determine the results of the survey. We have two hypotheses about the organizational commitment. The findings are presented along with the results discussed in the literature.

    ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT
    What is Organizational Commitment?
    The number of studies on organizational commitment increased with the work called “Organization Man” by William Whyte. In his work, Whyte pointed out the dangers of excessive commitment and he defined organization man as a person who not only works for his organisation but also belongs to it. Whyte believes that employees are the source of creativity in groups and the individuals’ sense of belonging is the ultimate need (Randall, 1987). In literature, it is possible to find out various definitions of the term, “commitment”. Şengül Doğan (2013), described the term commitment as an emotional tendency towards the organization, awareness of the cost after leaving the organization, and moral obligation that helps an individual to stay in the organization. According to Çetin Ölçüm, organizational commitment refers to psychological commitment of an individual to organization including attendance to work, loyalty, and faithfulness in organizational values (Çetin Ölçüm, 2004). In his study, Bayram (2005), defined the term organizational commitment as employees’ loyal attitude to the organization, and interest that they have regarding the success of their organizations that they work for. According to Bayram, organizational changes like individual variants such as age and seniority in the organization, job design, and leadership qualifications of the administrator play important role in the commitment to an organization (Bayram, 2005). According to Meyer and Allen, the common point of different definitions of organizational commitment is a psychological condition that,

    a) describes the relationship of the employee towards the organization,
    b) indicates the decision of the organization regarding whether to remain as a member (Meyer & Allen, 1997; Şengül Doğan, 2013).

    Porter, Steers, Mowday, & Boulian (1974) defined organizational commitment as a person›s identification and ability to participate in a particular organization. According to this definition, there are three basic elements of organizational commitment:

    1. Acceptance of an individual’s values and goals of the organization with strong faith,
    2. Individual’s more important efforts for the organization,
    3. Individual’s decisive desire to protect their membership in an organization.

    According to Ayyildiz, Yuksel & Hancer (2007), organizational commitment refers to an individual’s psychological commitment that includes elements such as joining to an organization, loyalty, and faith in organizational values. Besides, Ayyıldız et al. (2007), describes organizational commitment as a three-stage process. These stages are as follows (Ayyıldız et al., 2007):

    1. Compliance Stage: At this stage, the individual acknowledges to be affected by other individuals after getting something.
    2. Identity Discovery Stage: In this stage, the individual acknowledges the influence of others in order to be proud of belonging to the organization and create a satisfactory relationship.
    3. Internalization Stage: In this stage, people discover that the values of the organization are appropriate for their individual values and the values of the organization itself provide intrinsic rewards.

    The Importance of Organizational Commitment
    In today’s world, the effective use of resources poses a major challenge for organizations. Because of this, organizations usually intend to reduce the high cost caused by employee turnover rate and try to increase the commitment of employees to ensure continuity. It is believed that faithful employees will work harder and make more self-sacrifices in order to reach the organizational goals. Researches studies show that commitment reduces the cost caused by high employee turnover rate (Meyer & Allen, 2004).

    According to Şengül Doğan (2013), understanding the organizational commitment better not only makes employees happier and productive, but also makes the information obtained while studying the forms of commitment to be spread to other areas. On the other hand, the level of ties of the individuals to their organization that they belong to affects the society in general (Şengül Doğan, 2013: 70). In their studies, Mathieu and Zajac (1990) announced the factors that reveal organizational commitment as follows (Mathieu & Zajac, 1990):

    • Personal characteristics (age, gender, education, skills, salary, status)
    • Role status (role ambiguity, role conflict, role overload)
    • Job characteristics (skills, autonomy, scope of work)
    • Group/leader relationship (group cohesion, solidarity mission, a leading authority structure, the dignity of the leader, the leader-group relations, participatory leadership)
    • Organizational characteristics (size and degree of centralization of the organization)

    In this study, a survey was conducted regarding the salaries of the personal characteristics that influence organizational commitment.

    A Research on the Effect of Salary on Academicians’ Levels of Organizational Commitment
    Method of Study

    The aim of this research was to find out the effect of salary increase on academicians’ organizational behaviour. 327 academicians participated in this survey. The questionnaire used in the study consisted of two parts. In the first part, there were demographic factors, and in the second part, there were questions to measure the organizational commitment. The scale used for organizational commitment was pretested and adapted by a study conducted by Allen and Meyer (1990), and asked properly in accordance with the objectives of the research. In the reliability analysis of the survey, the questions numbered 11 and 18 were excluded from the survey because they were considered to lower the reliability of the survey. Reliability analysis results are as follows:

    Cronbach’s Alpha reliability of the survey rose by 0.739.

    Demographic Research Results
    A total of 237 people participated in the study. 43.5% of the participants were women and 56.5% were men.

    The ages of the participants in the study were as follows. 7.6% between 18-25 years old, 26-35 years old 70.5%, 13.5% between 36-45 years, and 46-55 over the age of 56 years and older was 6.3 and 2.1%. It was observed that the age of the participants of this study was between 35 and 26 wt.

    When we looked at the departments of the respondents, 55.7% of the respondents are working in faculty, 5.5% are working at research institute, 14.8% and 24.1% worked in higher education in vocational colleges.

    When we look at the period of time they work, the percentage of the participants who worked for less than a year was 8.4%. The percentage of those who worked between 1-5 years was 54.9%. 18.6% of the participants worked between 6-10 years, the percentage of the attendants who worked between 11-15 years is 10.5%, and the percentage of the employees working for 15+ years was 7.6%.

    The titles of the participants in this study showed the distribution as follows. 3.8% of them were doctors; the doctor lecturers were at 4.2%, 32.5% were teaching assistants, 46.4% of them were research assistants.

    As for the region they live in, 26.6% of respondents surveyed were in Central Anatolia, 14.7% of them were in Black Sea, 1.8% were in Aegean, 4.6%, were in Marmara, 19.7% were in Eastern Anatolia, 12.2% and 7.6% were in South-Eastern Anatolia and in Mediterranean region.

  • Top
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Results
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Results
    Factor analysis performed in accordance with the qualification coefficient of 0.864 was found KMO results, is expected to be KMO coefficient of 0.5 and above, the variables are understood to be compatible factors. According to Bartlett hypothesis test p = 0.000 factor analysis was suitable even for these variables. 4 factors, according to survey study illustrated the cumulative variance table and tray consisted of 62.117% cumulative study. Also variance coefficients for each factor are shown below.

    According to factor analysis, four factors emerged from the data. It is important to study two of the four factors. As seen in Table 1, Factors 1.7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 18, and 19 described the 31.438% of the survey questions. 2. In the factors 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6, 20% of survey questions illustrated the 16.192’s.


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    Table 1: Gender

    The hypotheses generated by the research results of the factor analysis are as follows.

    H0: There is no organizational commitment amongst academicians before academic salary increase.

    H1: Academicians have organizational commitment before academic salary increase.

    1. These two hypotheses by factor analysis were analysed in the set. The results showed that there was a positive correlation I. cluster. Accordingly, the hypothesis “Academicians have organizational commitment before academic salary increase.” was accepted.

    Another hypothesis is as follows:

    H0: There is no organizational commitment amongst the academicians after academic salary increase.

    H1: Academicians have organizational commitment after academic salary increase.

    According to the hypothesis, these two factors were analysed by cluster analysis 2. According to the results II, there is a positive correlation in the set. Accordingly, the hypothesis, “H1: Academicians have organizational commitment after academic salary increase.” was accepted.


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    Table 2: Age


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    Table 3: Unit


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    Table 4: Working Time


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    Table 5: Title


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    Table 6: KMO and Bartlett’s Test


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    Table 7: Total Variance Explained


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    Table 8: Rotated Component Matrix (a)

  • Top
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Results
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Conclusion
    The results of this study which aimed to find out whether the salary factor —one of the factors that affect organizational commitment— affects organizational commitment or not showed that the academicians had organizational commitment before salary increase, and this increase in their salary affected the academicians’ organizational commitment towards their institution positively. This study had a limitation. The evaluation of organizational commitment in terms of only academic salary increase was the limitation of this study. This study can be widened by adding other factors that affect organizational commitment.
  • Top
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Results
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • References

    1) Ayyildiz, T., Yuksel, A., & Hancer, M. (2007). Corporate governance: Impact on staff loyalty. Journal of Travel & Tourism Research, 7(1), 50 -69.

    2) Bayram, L. (2005). Yönetimde yeni bir paradigma: Örgütsel bağlılık. Sayıştay Dergisi, (59), 125-139. Retrieved from http://dergi. sayistay.gov.tr/icerik/der59m6.pdf

    3) Çetin Ölçüm, M. (2004). Örgüt Kültürü ve Örgüte Bağlılık. Ankara: Nobel Yayınları.

    4) Şengül Doğan, E. (2013). Örgüt Kültürü ve Örgütsel Bağlılık. İstanbul: Turkmen Kitabevi

    5) Meyer, J. P., & Allen, N. J. (2004). TCM employee commitment survey academic users guide 2004. London, Ontario, Canada: The University of Western Ontario, Department of Psychology.

    6) Porter, L. W., Steers, R. M., Mowday, R. T., & Boulian, P. V. (1974). Organizational commitment, job satisfaction, and turnover among psychiatric technicians. Journal of Applied Psychology, 59(5), 603.

    7) Randall, D. M. (1987). Commitment and the organization: The organization man revisited. Academy of Management Review, 12(3), 460-471.

  • Top
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Results
  • Conclusion
  • References
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