Bu RoMEO yeşil bir dergidir
2018, Cilt 8, Sayı 3, Sayfa(lar) 574-582
[ Öz ] [ PDF ] [ Benzer Makaleler ] [ Yazara E-Posta ] [ Editöre E-Posta ]
DOI: 10.5961/jhes.2018.298
The Impact of Emotions on the Well-Being of the English Preparatory Program Instructors
Buse ARAL, Enisa MEDE
1İstanbul Bilgi University, English Language Preparatory Program, Istanbul, Turkey
2Bahçeşehir University, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of English Language Teaching, Istanbul, Turkey
Keywords: Emotions, Emotional well-being, English language preparatory program, EFL instructors
Abstract
The purpose of this research study is to find out the impact of emotions on the well-being of the English Language Preparatory Program instructors working in private (non-profit, foundation) universities in İstanbul, Turkey. Specifically, this mixed method study aims to investigate the emotional well-being (positive and negative emotions) of the instructors, to explore to what extent year of experience affects their emotions, and lastly, to find out the reflections of the participating instructors leading to change in their emotions. The quantitative data were obtained through a Teacher Emotion Inventory (TEI) Scale (Chen, 2016) administered to 66 EFL instructors from five different English Language Preparatory Programs (ELPPs) in İstanbul while the qualitative data including instructors’ opinions about their feelings were gathered from teachers’ reflections written by 28 participating instructors. The findings of the study showed that participants mostly experience positive emotions. Moreover, it was also found that the years of experience had a positive impact only on the participants’ emotions of joy. However, there were also other remarkable factors affecting instructors’ emotions and emotional well-being regarding their students, personal life and institutions. Based on the findings, recommendations to foster positive emotions in preparatory programs were provided in the study.
  • Top
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Methods
  • Results
  • Disscussion
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Introduction
    Emotions have been defined as a state of mind with the guidance of strong feelings which are embodied in a character (Koestler, 1967: 226). Emotions are very subjective and the degree that they fluctuate differs from person to person. However, they are not stable and might vary over time and across situations as they are highly influenced and shaped by the environment that they occur, in while shaping the personal growth of a person as well.

    For each occupational setting, different emotional labour is required. Emotional labour can be explained as the regulation of emotions in organizations (Grandey, 2000). According to Hochschild (1983), it is about adapting your emotions to achieve a goal belonging to an organization whereas Goleman (1998) states that it is the highest form of a person’s emotional state. According to Hargreaves (1998), the main emotional labour in the class is love while Chen (2016) mentions love as the least experienced emotion and joy as the most frequent one.

    In the field of education, instructors’ emotions have never been a central issue, and the amount of research conducted is very low, even though emotions are at the centre of teaching (Hargreaves, 1998). The emotional responses of instructors are influenced by a variety of elements in a school setting and the way they express them heavily depends on their cultural background, gender, career and life goals and these emotions can be seen in the form of envy, anxiety, pride, love, doubt, worry, etc. (Hargreaves, 2000).

    When the school environment and instructors’ emotions are envisioned, feelings are classified as positive and negative and as occurring for different reasons. According to Sutton and Wheatley’s (2003) review, positive emotions, such as love, caring, pleasure, pride, and excitement are the result of seeing the learners’ improvement, spending time with the learners, having visits from former students, getting support from either colleagues or parents, or being a beginning instructor and experiencing unpredictable events. On the other hand, negative emotions, such as anger, frustration, shame, sadness, guilt, and anxiety are the result of students’ misbehaviors, disobedience, interacting with unhelpful colleagues and irresponsible parents, being stressed and tired, or being a beginning instructor and feeling unsure about how well you are doing in achieving goals.

    The emotions of instructors are not “internalized sensations that remain inert within the confines of their bodies but are integral to the ways in which they relate to and interact with their students, colleagues and parents” (Farouk, 2012: 491). Therefore, instructors’ emotions are relational with the environment. In other words, emotions do not exist within an individual or environment independently, rather they involve person-environment transactions (Schutz et al., 2006). In Sutton and Wheatley’s (2003) study, it is stated that when the instructors and the students have different perceptions over different occasions in class, they tend to feel different emotions which ends up affecting instructors’ interaction with students.

    In the recent literature, there are certain studies expressing the importance of the occupational environment and its influence on shaping individuals’ perceptions as well as their behaviors (Cenkseven-Önder & Sarı, 2009; Xiaofu & Qiwen, 2007; Sarı, 2005; Sünbül, 2003; Gürsel, Sünbül & Sarı, 2002; Kılıç, 2015; Sarıçam & Sakız, 2014; Kayıkçı, 2011; Eren, 2014; Çubukçu, 2013; Kızıltepe, 2008). However, there are only a few studies conducted to explore the quality of school lives and its emotional effects on teachers. For example, in a study carried out by Hagenauer and Volet (2014) 15 participating instructors expressed their positive emotions and feelings of pleasure when their students showed motivation, and completed their assignments. They also expressed positive emotions, such as hope, relief, happiness while handling a difficult situation. The researchers also shared emotions like lack of engagement, unwillingness from students, being asked too many questions, or a student’s trying to be too dominant over other students as the elements that cause negative emotional responses.

    Furthemore, Nikoopour, Farsani, Tajbakhsh, and Kiyaie (2012) investigated the emotional intelligence and self-efficacy of 336 Iranian instructors teaching in English language programs. Specifically, the study examined whether variables such as years of teaching experience, age and gender have any influence on their emotional intelligence and self-efficacy. The obtained findings revealed that years of teaching experience is positively correlated with the two concepts, but age and gender have no specific impact.

    In another study, Uitto and Estola (2009) asked 11 instructors about their own student times and memories of their former instructors. Participating instructors were all female. During the interviews, they expressed different feelings, such as admiration, frustration, support and restriction towards their instructors. These feelings came into existence after some incidents or formed over time with mutual friendship. Most importantly, it was found that both instructors might have the same roles and that gender is not a predictor of emotions.

    Considering the higher education in Turkey, in most state and private universities, English language education is offered by the language preparatory programs. However, even though the programs and their curriculum may show some similarities, there can be many differences in the number of facilities and the environment in which learning and teaching takes place. Considering those emotional experiences, it is possible to say that emotions mainly have a high potential to manipulate instructors’ teaching and students’ learning at the same time (Schutz & DeCuir, 2002).

    To begin with, when instructors’ emotions are taken into consideration, it is important to take their gender, years of experience, and age into account in relation to their job satisfaction and burn-out level. To exemplify, Çubukçu (2013) highlights the importance of emotions of 10 English instructors (five experienced and five novice) from a preparatory program of a state university in Turkey. The study put forward that there is a difference between young and experienced instructors in terms of experiencing negative and positive emotions. The findings also showed that particularly young instructors or novices tend to express more negative feelings, such as anger, guilt, shame, anxiety, and boredom, resulting from feeling inadequate or encountering misbehavior in class. For positive feelings, such as joy and pride, both experienced and novice instructors express them when their learners are engaged with the lesson or show success in tasks that are not expected to be fully completed.

    In a study conducted by Sarı (2005), the researcher compared 295 teachers and principals from different schools all around Turkey. The gathered results revealed that the female instructors experienced more emotional exhaustion and job satisfaction while the male instructors expressed more depersonalization. In addition, more experienced instructors were found to feel more personal accomplishment and less job satisfaction than the less experienced ones. Finally, in the study, it was found that the principals’ job satisfaction was higher than the instructors whose workload was much higher.

    In addition to how students’ motivation is important in the classroom setting, the university instructors’ emotions, their motivation and motivational reasons are important as well. As Kızıltepe (2008) mentions, students are a profound reason for instructors to feel motivated, followed by career opportunities while monetary and research based issues are found demotivating. However, as stated in her study, students can still be the most demotivating element due to behavior disorders in class, and especially female instructors’ level of motivation is mostly affected by the student factor.

    Based on these overviews, it can be concluded that, the emotions of instructors and their subjective well-being may display differences emerging from either individual or environmental factors. Whereas individual factors include motivation, years of teaching experience age and gender, environmental factors are related to students, colleagues and institutions. For that reason, there is a need for further research particularly in Turkey to raise the awareness of the importance of emotions and well-being of instructors and students in different educational settings.

    To fill in this gap, the overall purpose of the study is to investigate the emotional well-being (positive and negative emotions) of English instructors working in language preparatory programs, find out whether years of teaching experience has any impact on the fluctuation of their emotional well-being and lastly, identify their perceptions about the factors leading to change in their emotional labour. To achieve these objectives, the following research questions were addressed in this study:

    1. What is the emotional well-being (most common positive and negative emotions) experienced by the instructors engaged in an English Language Preparatory Programs (ELPPs)?
    2. To what extent do years of teaching experience affect the emotions of the ELPPs’ instructors?
    3. What are the perceptions of the participating instructors about the factors leading to change in their emotional labour?

  • Top
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Methods
  • Results
  • Disscussion
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Methods
    Research Design
    In this study, a mixed method design was embraced in order to meet the aims of the study and get benefit both from quantitative and qualitative data collection tools. Specifically, regarding the different types of data collection, this study takes explanatory sequential design as one type of mixed method research design (Creswell, 2012). In order to achieve its aim, this particular design prioritizes quantitative data and then collects qualitative set of data. For that reason, the qualitative set of data empowers quantitative data.

    To meet the specified objectives, the data was from quantitative and qualitative methods respectively. Specifically, the quantitative data was gathered from the Teacher Emotion Inventory (TEI) Scale (Chen, 2016) whereas the qualitative data came from reflections of the instructors.

    Data Collection
    To meet the specified objectives, the data in this study was collected following two stages. In the first stage, the quantitative data was gathered from the Teacher Emotion Inventory (TEI) Scale (Chen, 2016). To complement the quantitative data, qualitative data came from reflections of the instructors which were carried out as the second stage in this study.

    First of all, during the first phase of the quantitative data collection procedure of the study, the instructors were sent the Teacher Emotion Inventory (TEI) Scale (Chen, 2016) of two parts. To ensure that data collection instruments are valid and reliable, the researcher adapted scales that were previously utilized and applied in other studies. In previous studies, the instruments were proved to be valid and reliable. All item loadings were greater than .58 and it indicated that the items were related to each other. The inter-correlations among the five factors ranged from -.23 to.76 with an average value of .34. In addition, alphas within the range of .73-.90 with an average value of .84 demonstrated that the items had adequately strong reliabilities.

    The scale comprised two parts. Part 1 aimed to gather relevant background information about the participants while Part 2 attempted to find out the most common emotions experienced by the ELPP instructors. Specifically, 66 ELPP instructors from private universities were kindly asked to fill in the scale online. Based on the obtained percentages, they were from different age groups and had a variety in the years of experiences and expertise in teaching. The size of age groups was found to be similar to each other, except for the youngest teachers’ group aged between 20 and 25 (7.6%). As for the percentages for the years of experiences in total, 22.7% of them had 1-4 years of experience, 21.2% of them had 5-9 years of experience, 30.3% of them had 10-14 years of experience and 16.7% of them had between 15 and 20 years of experience. In addition, 9.1% of them had more than 20 years of experience. The distribution of male (30.3%) and female (69.7%) instructors were not equal.

    Finally, for the qualitative data, the participating ELPP instructors were asked to reflect on the factors that foster their positive emotions and/or protect them from negative emotions during their teaching practices. To achieve this aim, they were given two reflection questions and expected to write a short paragraph explaining their opinions.

    Analysis of Data
    The data sets were statistically analyzed using SPSS 23.0. First, the frequencies of the TEI scale about instructors’ well-being (their positive and negative emotions) were calculated. As for the impact of years of teaching experience on the emotions of the instructors, Levene’s test of Normality was conducted to test the normality of distribution for the Teacher Emotion Inventory Scale. The teachers who were half the standard deviation above the mean of the sample were selected as the “high experience” group. Other teachers were considered as the “low experience” group. The low experience group was defined as teachers who had less than 10 years of teaching experience while the high experience group was composed of instructors who had 10 and more years of experience. An independent sample t-test was used to analyze the difference between high and low experience groups in terms of their emotions.

    For the qualitative data, the participating instructors were asked to reflect on the factors that may lead to change in their emotional well-being emphasizing the positive and negative emotions. The data was analysed via content analysis (Miles & Huberman, 1994). The analysis process initiated with the open coding of the data followed by the categories included in reflections. The researcher deduced three categories that emerged from the data namely, student-related, instructor-related, and institution-related. Frequencies for these factors were calculated and comparison were made for both groups of instructors.

    To identify the degree of inter-rater reliability, two experts in the field of English Language Teaching (ELT) identified themes from the codes. The interrater raliabilty for the raters was found to be .81 which indicated close agreement on the general themes apart from the different verbalizations of similar concepts.

  • Top
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Methods
  • Results
  • Disscussion
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Results
    As stated in the previous parts of this research, the present study aims to investigate the emotional well-being (positive and negative emotions) of the ELPPs instructors, find out the relationship between these two types emotions, explore if years of teaching experience has any impact on their emotions and lastly, identify the factors that are influential on their emotional well-being. The results related to each research question are presented in the following section.

    A. The Emotional Well-Being (Positive and Negative Emotions) of EFL Instructors
    In an attempt to find an answer to the first research question about the emotional well-being of the participating instructors, the data were obtained through the TEI Scale. The mean scores of the scale were calculated through SPSS software and the sample size was reported as 66 participants.

    To begin with, the mean scores and standard deviations of the regularly felt emotions are shown in the table below:

    As shown in the Table 1 above, the average mean score of ELPP instructors’ regularly felt emotions was calculated and specifically, it was found out that the feeling “joy” is the most experienced emotion among instructors and it was rated as 4.38 while the second most experienced emotion was claimed as “anger” and rated as 3.61. Thirdly, the mean score of “love” was 3.56 rated by the instructors and it was followed by the feeling “sadness” and was rated as 3.37. Lastly, the least experienced emotion was revealed as “fear” and at 3.05 rated.


    Click Here to Zoom
    Table 1: The Frequency of Mostly Felt Emotions of the EFL Instructors in the ELPPs

    In addition, these findings were supported by the qualitative part of the study and the instructors mostly mentioned their feeling of “joy” under the terms of motivation, gratitude, and energy whereas the least mentioned feeling, “fear” was only mentioned in terms of feeling insufficient in class.

    […] Students’ attitude in general and motivation to learn are really essential for me. This changes me, too. I become more enthusiastic and motivated (Instructor, Reflection data.

    […] When I the see that the students are active and fully focused, I feel very delightful. The worst times are the ones when I feel I’m not sufficient enough (Instructor, Reflection data).

    Furthermore, when the answers of the participants about the feeling “joy” were analyzed, the feeling of being proud (e.g. I feel proud when I see my students make progress) was particularly emphasized which showed that the instructors mostly shared positive emotions towards their job and students. As another positive emotion, “love” is mostly correlated with respect from society, having a stable job and a chance to observe how the next generation grows up.

    Apart from the findings about feeling “joy” and “love”, when instructors’ negative emotions considered, it was revealed that “anger” was the mostly experienced negative feeling followed by “sadness”, and “fear”. Firstly, the instructors felt angry when the society misunderstood or blamed them. Moreover, another factor causing instructors to feel indignant was being treated unfairly in terms of workload or salary. What’s more, financial issues did not only make teachers “angry”, but also “sad”. Instructors associated their negative feelings with not getting what they should get, having promotion problems, and being ignored by their leaders in terms of their contributions.

    Finally, “fear” was the least expressed and mentioned feeling among all of them and it was mostly related to the times when students do not take their responsibility for their studies.

    As an addition to the quantitative findings about “anger” and “sadness” related to negative emotions, in their reflections, instructors mentioned that financial factors are important criteria affecting their emotions and emotional well-being:

    […] In addition to the behaviors of the students towards me, the pay is another important factor affecting my emotions (Instructor, Reflection data).

    […] The only factor for me is money. This will definitely affect my emotions (Instructor, Reflection data).

    Based on these overviews, it can be concluded that “joy” is the most common positive emotion as well as the most regularly felt emotion among the participants. On the contrary, “anger” is the most common negative emotion and it is the second mostly felt emotion. Finally, emotions can be sorted from the most to the least experienced ones as; “joy”, “anger”, “love”, “sadness”, and “fear”. This shows us that instructors do not tend to experience emotions in a linear order. In fact, their emotions fluctuate from positive to negative depending on various reasons.

    The Impact of Years of Teaching Experience on the Emotions of EFL Instructors
    To examine the third research question about the impact of years of teaching experience on ELPP instructors’ emotions, the instructors were separated into two groups as “low experience” and “high experience” through median split. Thereby, the low experience group consisted of 29 instructors who had less than 10 years of total experience in teaching whereas the high experience group consisted of 37 instructors who had more than 10 years of total experience in teaching. The results are demonstrated in the table below.

    As it is shown on Table 2 above, the differences between the emotions of the two groups were calculated through an independent sample t-test. Based on the findings, it was divulged that instructors in both groups did not significantly differ in their emotions regarding “anger”, “fear”, “sadness” and “love”. The only significant difference between low and high experience instructors regarding their emotions was “joy” (t(64)= -2.34, p<.05). The high experience group of instructors (M=4.54, SD=.40) reported higher levels of “joy” when compared to low experience group of teachers (M=4.18, SD=.89).


    Click Here to Zoom
    Table 2: The Effect of Years of Experience on the Feelings of ELPP Instructors

    In brief, the EFL teachers in ELPPs were examined depending on their years of experiences and it is evident from the findings that years of experience is a significant factor creating a difference on the emotions of instructors. In addition, it is disclosed that if they have 10 or more than 10 years of experience, they feel more amount of “joy” in their occupation, which seems to be associated with the advantages of seeing the next generation make progress and shape thanks to them.

    B. The Perceptions of EFL Instructors Leading to Change in their Emotional Labour
    As for the fourth research question of this study concerning the perceptions of the participating instructors leading to change in their emotional labour, the data came from their reflections. The qualitative findings were categorized under three categories; student-related, instructor-related, and institution related factors which are presented in the section below.

    I. Student related factors. ELPP instructors’ emotions are related both positively and negatively to the mutual interactions with their students. Moreover, student-related factors are the most effective criteria for shaping instructors’ emotions, as the frequency of comments related to learners’ engagement, motivation, and happiness are higher than the other factors on reflections. The following excerpts show how the factors affect them positively:

    […] I generally enjoy being in class, especially when my relationship with my students is good. In fact, sometimes being in class can be like an escape from the real world. I try to have as much fun as possible, and this usually makes the students happy. If they are happy, I am happy (Instructor, Reflection data).

    […] Willingness and unwillingness of my students, their motivational levels, positive and negative results of my efforts, emotional and cultural maturity of my students, and getting on well with the students are key factors (Instructor, Reflection data).

    As well as positive emotions related to their students, instructors also mentioned the times when they felt negatively due to the reasons deriving from their learners:

    […] The educational and cultural background of my students make me feel really negative these days (Instructor, Reflection data).

    […] I feel frustrated when I see the learners’ lack in critical thinking and autonomy, as well as their addiction to their mobile phones (Instructor, Reflection data).

    Based on the quantity and the quality of the reflections mentioned about the students, it is seen that instructors’ emotions and emotional well-being is determined by the relationship with their students. This relationship is shaped mutually and it can be both positive and negative. Lastly, students’ attitudes towards learning and to their instructors, respect, participation and having a good connection are the main factors influencing the way instructors feel and teach.

    II. Instructor related factors. Instructors’ emotions and emotional well-being depend heavily on their learners, however, as well as student-related factors, there are also instructor related factors affecting their emotions and emotional well-being. The following statements display the instructors’ reflections about themselves and how their private lives and personal issues have an impact on their emotions:

    […] Spending my classroom management time effectively is important...rather than disciplining, I’d like to be connecting and enhancing the classroom experience (Instructor, Reflection data).

    […] As well as motivation of my students, the most important another factor affecting my well-being is whether I am wellplanned or not (Instructor, Reflection data).

    To conclude, instructor related factors on the emotions and emotional well-being of instructors themselves are associated with some factors and these factors are found to be mainly related to their’ own teaching methodologies, feeling of being sufficient and private lives.

    III. Institution related factors. As for the factors modifying instructors’ emotions and emotional well-being, the places where they are working has a great impact on them. Although they do not have the priority, these institutional factors are associated with financial issues or colleagues. The following comments show how institutions shape instructors’ emotions and what factors are critical.

    […] Intellectual capacity of students and colleagues in general are essential factors for me (Instructor, Reflection data).

    […] A positive, friendly atmosphere and the salary are my main criteria (Instructor, Reflection data).

    To clarify the findings associated with the institutions, it can be seen that financial issues and a positive working environment and colleagues are also key factors defining instructors’ emotions.

    In brief, when all types of factors are examined, it is evident that student related factors are generally the ones that causes positive emotions to emerge whereas negative emotions are caused by factors related to the private lives of instructors. Besides, it can ben also concluded that institution related factors are associated positively with work environment, and negatively with financial issues.

  • Top
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Methods
  • Results
  • Disscussion
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Discussion
    The main purpose of this study was to investigate the emotional well-being (positive and negative emotions) of the instructors, to explore to what extent year of experience affects their emotions, and lastly, to find out the reflections of the participating instructors leading to change in their emotions. In line with these purposes, data for this mixed method study came from quantitative and qualitative tools. This section initially discusses the results of the study including each research question.

    To begin with, the first research question attempted to investigate the emotional well-being (positive and negative emotions) of the EFL instructors working in ELPPs through the Teacher Emotion Inventory (TEI) scale and reflective essays. Based on the ratings and perceptions of the instructors, the analysis showed that the majority of the emotions were rated above average by the participants, which showed that one of the emotions was the most common emotion felt by the instructors. Specifically, the emotions examined in the study were sorted from the most to the least experienced ones as follows: joy, anger, love, sadness, and fear.

    The findings revealed that “joy” was the most experienced emotion among ELPP instructors and it was related to instructors’ teaching efficiency and the relationship with their colleagues and students, and students’ motivation. Moreover, in the study conducted by Chen (2016), it was also found as the most frequently experienced emotion. Similarly, in a study by Hagenauer and Volet (2014), it was shown that instructors’ feeling of joy increases when the learners show interest and are motivated to complete their assignment and tasks.

    As the second most commonly felt emotion, “anger” was not related to instructors’ relationship with their learners. It was mostly associated with external factors, such as social, institutional and financial problems. In line with these, Sutton and Wheatley (2003) claimed that irresponsible parents, unhelpful colleagues and being tired in general affect instructors’ emotions negatively.

    As for the third mostly felt emotion, “love” was experienced in the form of being respected by the society, seeing how the next generations grow up, and having a stable job. However, financial issues were not related to being an instructor and feeling “love”. Sutton and Wheatley (2003) also say that excitement and pride are positively correlated with seeing learners’ improvement over the years or by hearing from former students.

    Moreover, “love” was followed by the emotion “sadness” and the findings were parallel with not being appreciated for their efforts and having issues with their learners. As Hagenauer and Volet (2014) stated in their study, unwillingness and lack of engagement are some of the elements related to the causes of negative emotions in instructors.

    As the least experienced emotion, “fear” was related to instructors’ feeling themselves not sufficient enough for their learners and at the same time feeling worried for them in case they do not take responsibility for their own achievement.

    In brief, when the instructors’ emotions are investigated in depth, it was clear from the results that there was a significant difference among “joy” and the other emotions. That’s to say, instructors in ELPPs attached a lot of importance to their feeling of “joy” more than to other emotions and they mostly felt happy about their occupations. Also, it was evident from the reflections that instructors mostly mentioned what could help them enjoy and feel motivated more in their teaching.

    Furthermore, the second research question of this study aimed to find out the effect of years of teaching experience on ELPP instructors’ emotions. As it is also expressed by Hargreaves (2005) emotions are related to the years of experience in the field. In this study, to achieve this aim, instructors were divided into two groups as high (>10 years) and low (<10years) experienced and their emotions were compared through an independent sample t-test. At the end of the analysis, the statistical significant difference found between high experienced group of instructors and low experienced group of instructors was only for the emotion “joy” regarding their occupation. Although most of the instructors expressed their opinions related to their positive emotions in depth, high experienced group of instructors specifically felt more “joy” than the others.

    In addition, the findings are in line with other studies (Nikoopour, Farsani, Tajbakhsh, & Kiyaie, 2012; Tabatabaei & Franzmehr, 2015) conducted in the field and it was also found that years of experience is positively correlated with high emotional intelligence, which was also related to job satisfaction of the teachers. Moreover, in a study conducted in Turkey by Çubukçu (2013), the relation between young and experienced instructors’ emotions was examined and it was revealed that young instructors tend to express more negative emotions whereas experienced ones shared mostly positive feelings. In line with the findings from the reflections of this study, the feelings mentioned in Çubukçu’s study (2013) were also associated with the learners’ being on task, fulfilling their responsibilities, and showing motivation.

    Furthermore, in some studies (Sarı, 2005; Gürsel, Sünbül, & Sarı, 2002), it was disclosed that more experienced groups of instructors feel the sense of personal accomplishment more than young instructors and this naturally enables them to feel more pleasant towards their occupation.

    To summarize, it is assumed that the more experienced the instructors are, the more joy they experience in their occupation. It might be due to both the higher amount of time they spend with the students, and seeing the results of their endeavours over time. Therefore, it is thought that years of experience makes a positive contribution to instructors’ emotions and emotional well-being.

    Finally, the last question of this study focused on the perceptions of the participating instructors leading to change in their emotions. To answer this question, the participants were asked to share their beliefs and opinions about the factors affecting their emotions and emotional well-being. The data was gathered from the reflection questions which allowed instructors to express themselves freely. The findings revealed that the instructors’ emotions were affected by three major factors; student-related, instructor-related and institution-related factors.

    Specifically, student-related factors were based upon the relationship between the instructors and students. The instructors mostly attributed their well-being to their learners’ happiness in class, willingness to learn, amount of dedication and motivation they show in class. As Houser & Waldbuesser (2017) also claimed, both the learners and the instructors get benefit from a favourable class atmosphere. In addition, instructors mentioned that critical thinking, autonomy development, responsibility taking, and showing respect are other side factors leading to change in their well-being and emotions in teaching.

    Secondly, instructor-related factors are the second most effective criteria causing a change on the well-being and emotions of instructors. When the reflections of the instructors were considered, instructors’ teaching efficiency, family issues, the life standards they have, and personal well-being surpassed the other factors. To put it another way, the findings were echoed in the study conducted by Day and Qing (2009) and it is seen that keeping a heathy state of mind and personal well-being are crucial factors.

    Last but not least, institution-related factors were grounded in the relationship with colleagues, and the atmosphere of the work environment as well as financial issues. Instructors often mentioned how their work environment needs to be friendly and supportive in addition to appreciation and the salary they get from their institutions. As stated by Wills (2009), the work environment has a huge impact on influencing instructors’ personal well-being.

    To wrap up, as mentioned by Bakker (2005), emotions are contagious and the more teachers enjoy their work environment, the more they feel motivated during their lesson planning and teaching. Also, instructors’ motivation is directly connected with students’ engagement and when the learners are engaged, instructors overcome the obstacles easily when encountered (Day & Qing, 2009). Regarding the factors, it can be indicated that all the factors mentioned above are linked to each other in an inseparable way.

  • Top
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Methods
  • Results
  • Discussion
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Conclusion
    The present study has some limitations to be taken into consideration. First of all, this study was only conducted with the participation of ELPP instructors in private universities in İstanbul. In other words, the results may not be generalized to the other contexts and settings within or outside Turkey. To obtain more generalizable findings, another nation-wide follow-up study could be conducted with more participants from different universities (both state and private) so that the results could be generalized and the study would not have a limited external validity. This could also provide an opportunity to administer a comparative study whether the emotions of ELPP instructors working in private and state universities show variation. In addition, this study included only ELPP instructors; however, a follow up study could be carried out by including language learners and the program coordinators as well in order to find out their perceptions on their own emotions and emotional well-being. Despite these limitations, this study is still expected to contribute to the growing body of research on the emotions of instructors in language teaching.

    Besides its limitations, this study offers some recommendations for further research. To begin with, this study was carried out in a limited time period and at the beginning of the academic year. However, it can be assumed that timing of the data collection may have an effect on the results of the study. In this sense, instructors may experience different emotions towards the end of the academic year. Therefore, a further study could be conducted for a longer time period or throughout the year to find out whether the sorting of emotions show variety among each other and the timing of the data collection have a significance.

    In summary, the findings of this study offer empirical data about teacher emotions which will in turn provide useful implications for regulating teacher emotions in educational contexts. The study will also contribute to the existing literature concerning teaching development through involving ‘emotive’ dimensions. It will also help to understand emotions triggered by vulnerability which may constitute an opportunity for teachers to educate in a way that really makes a difference to teacher effectiveness (Day et al., 2007; Kelchtermans, 2005, 2011). Emotions have great potential to strengthen not only interpersonal relationships experienced in the classroom and broader contexts, but also create opportunities for learning and teaching in various situations (Bahia et al., 2013).

  • Top
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Methods
  • Results
  • Discussion
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • References

    1) Bahia, S., Freire, I., Amaral, A., & Teresa Estrela, M. (2013). The emotional dimension of teaching in a group of Portuguese teachers. Teachers and Teaching, 19(3), 275-292.

    2) Bakker, A. B. (2005). Flow among music teachers and their students: The crossover of peak experiences. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 66(1), 26-44.

    3) Cenkseven-Önder, F., & Sarı, M. (2009). The quality of school life and burnout as predictors of subjective well-being among teachers. Educational Sciences: Theory and Practice, 9(3), 1223-1235.

    4) Chen, J. (2016). Understanding teacher emotions: The development of a teacher emotion inventory. Teaching and Teacher Education, 55, 68-77.

    5) Creswell, J. W. (2012). Educational research: Planning, conducting, and evaluating quantitative and qualitative research (4th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson.

    6) Çubukçu, F. (2013). The significance of teachers’ academic emotions. Procedia-Social and Behavioural Sciences, 70, 649- 653.

    7) Day, C., Sammons, P., & Stobart, G. (2007). Teachers matter: Connecting work, lives and effectiveness. London: McGraw- Hill.

    8) Day, C., & Qing, G. (2009). Teacher emotions: Well-being and effectiveness. In P. A. Schutz & M. Zembylas (Eds.). Advances in teacher emotion research: The impact on teachers’ lives (pp. 15-31). New York: Springer.

    9) Eren, A. (2014). Uncovering the links between prospective teachers’ personal responsibility, academic optimism, hope, and emotions about teaching: A mediation analysis. Social Psychology of Education, 17(1), 73-104.

    10) Farouk, S. (2012). What can the self-conscious emotion of guilt tell us about primary school teachers’ moral purpose and the relationships they have with their pupils? Teachers and Teaching: Theory and Practice, 18(4), 491-507.

    11) Goleman, D. (1998). Working with emotional intelligence. New York: Bantam Books.

    12) Grandey, A. A. (2000). Emotional regulation in the workplace: A new way to conceptualize emotional labor. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 5(1), 95-110. Retrieved from http://php.scripts.psu.edu/users/a/a/aag6/GrandeyJOHP.pdf

    13) Gürsel, M., Sünbül, A. M., & Sarı, H. (2002). An analysis of burnout and job satisfaction between Turkish head teachers and teachers. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 17(1), 35-45.

    14) Hagenauer, G., & Volet, S. E. (2014). “I don’t hide my feelings, even though I try to”: insight into teacher educator emotion display. The Australian Educational Researcher, 41(3), 261-281.

    15) Hagenauer, G., & Volet, S. (2014). ‘I don’t think I could, you know, just teach without any emotion’: exploring the nature and origin of university teachers’ emotions. Research Papers in Education, 29(2), 240-262.

    16) Hargreaves, A. (1998). The emotional practice of teaching. Teaching and Teacher Education, 14(8), 835-854.

    17) Hargreaves, A. (2000). Mixed emotions: Teachers’ perceptions of their interactions with students. Teaching and Teacher Education, 16(8), 811-826.

    18) Hargreaves, A. (2005). Educational change takes ages: Life, career and generational factors in teachers’ emotional responses to educational change. Teaching and Teacher Education, 21(8), 967-983.

    19) Hochschild, A. R. (1983). The managed heart: Commercialization of human feeling. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

    20) Houser, M. L., & Waldbuesser, C. (2017). Emotional contagion in the classroom: The impact of teacher satisfaction and confirmation on perceptions of student nonverbal classroom behavior. College Teaching, 65(1), 1-8.

    21) Kayıkçı, K. (2011). A conceptual framework on managing student misbehaviors and a research in primary schools in Turkey. Journal of Education Research, 5(2), 119-142.

    22) Kelchtermans, G. (2005). Teachers’ emotions in educational reforms: Self-understanding, vulnerable commitment and micropolitical literacy. Teaching and Teacher Education, 21(8), 995-1006.

    23) Kelchtermans, G. (2011). Vulnerability in teaching: The moral and political roots of structural condition. In New understandings of teacher’s work (pp. 65-82). Dordrecht: Springer.

    24) Kılıç, Ş. (2015). Preschool teachers’ emotional socialization responses to 4-6 Year-old Turkish preschoolers’ emotional expressions. European Journal of Research on Education, 3(1), 53-63.

    25) Kızıltepe, Z. (2008). Motivation and demotivation of university teachers. Teachers and Teaching, 14(5-6), 515-530.

    26) Koestler, A. (1967). The ghost in the machine. London: Hutchinson & Co.

    27) Miles, M. B., & Huberman, A. M. (1994). Qualitative data analysis: An expanded sourcebook. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

    28) Nikoopour, J., Farsani, M. A., Tajbakhsh, M., & Kiyaie, S. H. S. (2012). The relationship between trait emotional intelligence and self-efficacy among Iranian EFL teachers. Journal of Language Teaching and Research, 3(6), 1165-1174.

    29) Sarı, H. (2005). How do principals and teachers in special schools in Turkey rate themselves on levels of burnout, job satisfaction, and locus of control? Alberta Journal of Educational Research, 51(2), 172-192.

    30) Sarıçam, H., & Sakız, H. (2014). Burnout and teacher self-efficacy among teachers working in special education institutions in Turkey. Educational Studies, 40(4), 423-437.

    31) Schutz, P. A., Williams, M. R., Hong, J. Y., Cross, D. I., & Osbon, J. N. (2006). Teachers’ organization of statements related to beliefs about emotions in the classroom. In paper presented at the American educational research association, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

    32) Schutz, P. A., & DeCuir, J. T. (2002). Inquiry on emotions in education. Educational Psychologist, 37(2), 125-134.

    33) Sutton, R. E., & Wheatley, K. F. (2003). Teachers’ emotions and teaching: A review of the literature and directions for future research. Educational Psychology Review, 15(4), 327-358.

    34) Sünbül, A. M. (2003). An analysis of relations among locus of control, burnout and job satisfaction in Turkish high school teachers. Australian Journal of Education, 47(1), 58-72.

    35) Tabatabaei, S. O., & Farazmehr, Z. (2015). The relationship between emotional intelligence and Iranian language institute teachers’ job satisfaction. Theory and Practice in Language Studies, 5(1), 184-195.

    36) Uitto, M., & Estola, E. (2009). Gender and emotions in relationships: a group of teachers recalling their own teachers. Gender and Education, 21(5), 517-530.

    37) Xiaofu, P., & Qiwen, Q. (2007). An analysis of the relation between secondary school organizational climate and teacher job satisfaction. Chinese Education and Society, 40(5), 65-77.

    38) Wills, E. (2009). Spirituality and subjective well-being: Evidences for a new domain in the personal well-being index. Journal of Happiness Studies, 10(1), 49-69.

  • Top
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Methods
  • Results
  • Discussion
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • [ Başa Dön ] [ Öz ] [ PDF ] [ Benzer Makaleler ] [ Yazara E-Posta ] [ Editöre E-Posta ]
    Şu ana kadar web sayfamız 24134555 defa ziyaret edilmiştir.