2018, Cilt 8, Sayı 3, Sayfa(lar) 574-582
The Impact of Emotions on the Well-Being of the English Preparatory Program Instructors
Buse ARAL, Enisa MEDE
1İstanbul Bilgi University, English Language Preparatory Program, Istanbul, Turkey
2Bahçeşehir University, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of English Language Teaching, Istanbul, Turkey
Keywords: Emotions, Emotional well-being, English language preparatory program, EFL instructors
The purpose of this research study is to find out the impact of emotions on the well-being of the English Language Preparatory Program
instructors working in private (non-profit, foundation) universities in İstanbul, Turkey. Specifically, this mixed method study aims to
investigate the emotional well-being (positive and negative emotions) of the instructors, to explore to what extent year of experience
affects their emotions, and lastly, to find out the reflections of the participating instructors leading to change in their emotions. The
quantitative data were obtained through a Teacher Emotion Inventory (TEI) Scale (Chen, 2016) administered to 66 EFL instructors
from five different English Language Preparatory Programs (ELPPs) in İstanbul while the qualitative data including instructors opinions
about their feelings were gathered from teachers reflections written by 28 participating instructors. The findings of the study showed that
participants mostly experience positive emotions. Moreover, it was also found that the years of experience had a positive impact only
on the participants emotions of joy. However, there were also other remarkable factors affecting instructors emotions and emotional
well-being regarding their students, personal life and institutions. Based on the findings, recommendations to foster positive emotions in
preparatory programs were provided in the study.
Emotions have been defined as a state of mind with the
guidance of strong feelings which are embodied in a character
(Koestler, 1967: 226). Emotions are very subjective and
the degree that they fluctuate differs from person to person.
However, they are not stable and might vary over time and
across situations as they are highly influenced and shaped by
the environment that they occur, in while shaping the personal
growth of a person as well.
For each occupational setting, different emotional labour is
required. Emotional labour can be explained as the regulation
of emotions in organizations (Grandey, 2000). According
to Hochschild (1983), it is about adapting your emotions to
achieve a goal belonging to an organization whereas Goleman
(1998) states that it is the highest form of a persons emotional
state. According to Hargreaves (1998), the main emotional
labour in the class is love while Chen (2016) mentions love as
the least experienced emotion and joy as the most frequent
In the field of education, instructors emotions have never
been a central issue, and the amount of research conducted is
very low, even though emotions are at the centre of teaching
(Hargreaves, 1998). The emotional responses of instructors are
influenced by a variety of elements in a school setting and the
way they express them heavily depends on their cultural background,
gender, career and life goals and these emotions can
be seen in the form of envy, anxiety, pride, love, doubt, worry,
etc. (Hargreaves, 2000).
When the school environment and instructors emotions are
envisioned, feelings are classified as positive and negative and
as occurring for different reasons. According to Sutton and
Wheatleys (2003) review, positive emotions, such as love,
caring, pleasure, pride, and excitement are the result of seeing
the learners improvement, spending time with the learners,
having visits from former students, getting support from
either colleagues or parents, or being a beginning instructor
and experiencing unpredictable events. On the other hand,
negative emotions, such as anger, frustration, shame, sadness,
guilt, and anxiety are the result of students misbehaviors, disobedience,
interacting with unhelpful colleagues and irresponsible
parents, being stressed and tired, or being a beginning
instructor and feeling unsure about how well you are doing in
The emotions of instructors are not internalized sensations
that remain inert within the confines of their bodies but are
integral to the ways in which they relate to and interact with
their students, colleagues and parents (Farouk, 2012: 491).
Therefore, instructors emotions are relational with the environment.
In other words, emotions do not exist within an
individual or environment independently, rather they involve
person-environment transactions (Schutz et al., 2006). In
Sutton and Wheatleys (2003) study, it is stated that when the
instructors and the students have different perceptions over
different occasions in class, they tend to feel different emotions
which ends up affecting instructors interaction with students.
In the recent literature, there are certain studies expressing
the importance of the occupational environment and its
influence on shaping individuals perceptions as well as their
behaviors (Cenkseven-Önder & Sarı, 2009; Xiaofu & Qiwen,
2007; Sarı, 2005; Sünbül, 2003; Gürsel, Sünbül & Sarı, 2002;
Kılıç, 2015; Sarıçam & Sakız, 2014; Kayıkçı, 2011; Eren, 2014;
Çubukçu, 2013; Kızıltepe, 2008). However, there are only a few
studies conducted to explore the quality of school lives and its
emotional effects on teachers. For example, in a study carried
out by Hagenauer and Volet (2014) 15 participating instructors
expressed their positive emotions and feelings of pleasure
when their students showed motivation, and completed their
assignments. They also expressed positive emotions, such as
hope, relief, happiness while handling a difficult situation. The
researchers also shared emotions like lack of engagement,
unwillingness from students, being asked too many questions,
or a students trying to be too dominant over other students as
the elements that cause negative emotional responses.
Furthemore, Nikoopour, Farsani, Tajbakhsh, and Kiyaie (2012)
investigated the emotional intelligence and self-efficacy of 336
Iranian instructors teaching in English language programs. Specifically,
the study examined whether variables such as years
of teaching experience, age and gender have any influence
on their emotional intelligence and self-efficacy. The obtained
findings revealed that years of teaching experience is positively
correlated with the two concepts, but age and gender have no
In another study, Uitto and Estola (2009) asked 11 instructors
about their own student times and memories of their former
instructors. Participating instructors were all female. During
the interviews, they expressed different feelings, such as
admiration, frustration, support and restriction towards their
instructors. These feelings came into existence after some
incidents or formed over time with mutual friendship. Most
importantly, it was found that both instructors might have the
same roles and that gender is not a predictor of emotions.
Considering the higher education in Turkey, in most state and
private universities, English language education is offered by
the language preparatory programs. However, even though
the programs and their curriculum may show some similarities,
there can be many differences in the number of facilities and
the environment in which learning and teaching takes place.
Considering those emotional experiences, it is possible to say
that emotions mainly have a high potential to manipulate
instructors teaching and students learning at the same time
(Schutz & DeCuir, 2002).
To begin with, when instructors emotions are taken into consideration,
it is important to take their gender, years of experience,
and age into account in relation to their job satisfaction
and burn-out level. To exemplify, Çubukçu (2013) highlights
the importance of emotions of 10 English instructors (five
experienced and five novice) from a preparatory program of
a state university in Turkey. The study put forward that there
is a difference between young and experienced instructors
in terms of experiencing negative and positive emotions. The findings also showed that particularly young instructors or
novices tend to express more negative feelings, such as anger,
guilt, shame, anxiety, and boredom, resulting from feeling
inadequate or encountering misbehavior in class. For positive
feelings, such as joy and pride, both experienced and novice
instructors express them when their learners are engaged with
the lesson or show success in tasks that are not expected to be
In a study conducted by Sarı (2005), the researcher compared
295 teachers and principals from different schools all around
Turkey. The gathered results revealed that the female instructors
experienced more emotional exhaustion and job satisfaction
while the male instructors expressed more depersonalization.
In addition, more experienced instructors were found to
feel more personal accomplishment and less job satisfaction
than the less experienced ones. Finally, in the study, it was
found that the principals job satisfaction was higher than the
instructors whose workload was much higher.
In addition to how students motivation is important in the
classroom setting, the university instructors emotions, their
motivation and motivational reasons are important as well. As
Kızıltepe (2008) mentions, students are a profound reason for
instructors to feel motivated, followed by career opportunities
while monetary and research based issues are found demotivating.
However, as stated in her study, students can still be the
most demotivating element due to behavior disorders in class,
and especially female instructors level of motivation is mostly
affected by the student factor.
Based on these overviews, it can be concluded that, the emotions
of instructors and their subjective well-being may display
differences emerging from either individual or environmental
factors. Whereas individual factors include motivation, years
of teaching experience age and gender, environmental factors
are related to students, colleagues and institutions. For that
reason, there is a need for further research particularly in Turkey
to raise the awareness of the importance of emotions and
well-being of instructors and students in different educational
To fill in this gap, the overall purpose of the study is to investigate
the emotional well-being (positive and negative emotions)
of English instructors working in language preparatory
programs, find out whether years of teaching experience has
any impact on the fluctuation of their emotional well-being
and lastly, identify their perceptions about the factors leading
to change in their emotional labour. To achieve these objectives,
the following research questions were addressed in this
1. What is the emotional well-being (most common positive
and negative emotions) experienced by the instructors
engaged in an English Language Preparatory Programs
2. To what extent do years of teaching experience affect the
emotions of the ELPPs instructors?
3. What are the perceptions of the participating instructors
about the factors leading to change in their emotional
In this study, a mixed method design was embraced in order
to meet the aims of the study and get benefit both from
quantitative and qualitative data collection tools. Specifically,
regarding the different types of data collection, this study takes
explanatory sequential design as one type of mixed method
research design (Creswell, 2012). In order to achieve its aim,
this particular design prioritizes quantitative data and then
collects qualitative set of data. For that reason, the qualitative
set of data empowers quantitative data.
To meet the specified objectives, the data was from quantitative
and qualitative methods respectively. Specifically, the
quantitative data was gathered from the Teacher Emotion
Inventory (TEI) Scale (Chen, 2016) whereas the qualitative data
came from reflections of the instructors.
To meet the specified objectives, the data in this study was
collected following two stages. In the first stage, the quantitative
data was gathered from the Teacher Emotion Inventory
(TEI) Scale (Chen, 2016). To complement the quantitative data,
qualitative data came from reflections of the instructors which
were carried out as the second stage in this study.
First of all, during the first phase of the quantitative data collection
procedure of the study, the instructors were sent the
Teacher Emotion Inventory (TEI) Scale (Chen, 2016) of two
parts. To ensure that data collection instruments are valid and
reliable, the researcher adapted scales that were previously
utilized and applied in other studies. In previous studies, the
instruments were proved to be valid and reliable. All item
loadings were greater than .58 and it indicated that the items
were related to each other. The inter-correlations among the
five factors ranged from -.23 to.76 with an average value of .34.
In addition, alphas within the range of .73-.90 with an average
value of .84 demonstrated that the items had adequately
The scale comprised two parts. Part 1 aimed to gather relevant
background information about the participants while Part 2
attempted to find out the most common emotions experienced
by the ELPP instructors. Specifically, 66 ELPP instructors from
private universities were kindly asked to fill in the scale online.
Based on the obtained percentages, they were from different
age groups and had a variety in the years of experiences and
expertise in teaching. The size of age groups was found to be
similar to each other, except for the youngest teachers group
aged between 20 and 25 (7.6%). As for the percentages for the
years of experiences in total, 22.7% of them had 1-4 years of
experience, 21.2% of them had 5-9 years of experience, 30.3%
of them had 10-14 years of experience and 16.7% of them had
between 15 and 20 years of experience. In addition, 9.1% of them had more than 20 years of experience. The distribution
of male (30.3%) and female (69.7%) instructors were not equal.
Finally, for the qualitative data, the participating ELPP instructors
were asked to reflect on the factors that foster their positive
emotions and/or protect them from negative emotions
during their teaching practices. To achieve this aim, they were
given two reflection questions and expected to write a short
paragraph explaining their opinions.
Analysis of Data
The data sets were statistically analyzed using SPSS 23.0. First,
the frequencies of the TEI scale about instructors well-being
(their positive and negative emotions) were calculated. As for
the impact of years of teaching experience on the emotions
of the instructors, Levenes test of Normality was conducted
to test the normality of distribution for the Teacher Emotion
Inventory Scale. The teachers who were half the standard deviation
above the mean of the sample were selected as the high
experience group. Other teachers were considered as the low
experience group. The low experience group was defined as
teachers who had less than 10 years of teaching experience
while the high experience group was composed of instructors
who had 10 and more years of experience. An independent
sample t-test was used to analyze the difference between high
and low experience groups in terms of their emotions.
For the qualitative data, the participating instructors were
asked to reflect on the factors that may lead to change in their
emotional well-being emphasizing the positive and negative
emotions. The data was analysed via content analysis (Miles
& Huberman, 1994). The analysis process initiated with the
open coding of the data followed by the categories included
in reflections. The researcher deduced three categories that
emerged from the data namely, student-related, instructor-related,
and institution-related. Frequencies for these factors
were calculated and comparison were made for both groups
To identify the degree of inter-rater reliability, two experts in
the field of English Language Teaching (ELT) identified themes
from the codes. The interrater raliabilty for the raters was
found to be .81 which indicated close agreement on the general
themes apart from the different verbalizations of similar
As stated in the previous parts of this research, the present
study aims to investigate the emotional well-being (positive
and negative emotions) of the ELPPs instructors, find out the
relationship between these two types emotions, explore if
years of teaching experience has any impact on their emotions
and lastly, identify the factors that are influential on their emotional
well-being. The results related to each research question
are presented in the following section.
A. The Emotional Well-Being (Positive and Negative Emotions)
of EFL Instructors
In an attempt to find an answer to the first research question about the emotional well-being of the participating instructors,
the data were obtained through the TEI Scale. The mean
scores of the scale were calculated through SPSS software and
the sample size was reported as 66 participants.
To begin with, the mean scores and standard deviations of the
regularly felt emotions are shown in the table below:
As shown in the Table 1 above, the average mean score of
ELPP instructors regularly felt emotions was calculated and
specifically, it was found out that the feeling joy is the most
experienced emotion among instructors and it was rated as
4.38 while the second most experienced emotion was claimed
as anger and rated as 3.61. Thirdly, the mean score of love
was 3.56 rated by the instructors and it was followed by the
feeling sadness and was rated as 3.37. Lastly, the least experienced
emotion was revealed as fear and at 3.05 rated.
Click Here to Zoom
|Table 1: The Frequency of Mostly Felt Emotions of the EFL
Instructors in the ELPPs
In addition, these findings were supported by the qualitative
part of the study and the instructors mostly mentioned their
feeling of joy under the terms of motivation, gratitude, and
energy whereas the least mentioned feeling, fear was only
mentioned in terms of feeling insufficient in class.
] Students attitude in general and motivation to learn are
really essential for me. This changes me, too. I become more
enthusiastic and motivated (Instructor, Reflection data.
] When I the see that the students are active and fully focused,
I feel very delightful. The worst times are the ones when I feel
Im not sufficient enough (Instructor, Reflection data).
Furthermore, when the answers of the participants about the
feeling joy were analyzed, the feeling of being proud (e.g. I
feel proud when I see my students make progress) was particularly
emphasized which showed that the instructors mostly
shared positive emotions towards their job and students. As
another positive emotion, love is mostly correlated with
respect from society, having a stable job and a chance to
observe how the next generation grows up.
Apart from the findings about feeling joy and love, when
instructors negative emotions considered, it was revealed that
anger was the mostly experienced negative feeling followed
by sadness, and fear. Firstly, the instructors felt angry
when the society misunderstood or blamed them. Moreover,
another factor causing instructors to feel indignant was being
treated unfairly in terms of workload or salary. Whats more,
financial issues did not only make teachers angry, but also
sad. Instructors associated their negative feelings with not
getting what they should get, having promotion problems, and
being ignored by their leaders in terms of their contributions.
Finally, fear was the least expressed and mentioned feeling
among all of them and it was mostly related to the times when
students do not take their responsibility for their studies.
As an addition to the quantitative findings about anger and
sadness related to negative emotions, in their reflections,
instructors mentioned that financial factors are important criteria
affecting their emotions and emotional well-being:
] In addition to the behaviors of the students towards me,
the pay is another important factor affecting my emotions
(Instructor, Reflection data).
] The only factor for me is money. This will definitely affect
my emotions (Instructor, Reflection data).
Based on these overviews, it can be concluded that joy is
the most common positive emotion as well as the most regularly
felt emotion among the participants. On the contrary,
anger is the most common negative emotion and it is the
second mostly felt emotion. Finally, emotions can be sorted
from the most to the least experienced ones as; joy, anger,
love, sadness, and fear. This shows us that instructors do
not tend to experience emotions in a linear order. In fact, their
emotions fluctuate from positive to negative depending on
The Impact of Years of Teaching Experience on the Emotions
of EFL Instructors
To examine the third research question about the impact of
years of teaching experience on ELPP instructors emotions,
the instructors were separated into two groups as low experience
and high experience through median split. Thereby,
the low experience group consisted of 29 instructors who had
less than 10 years of total experience in teaching whereas the
high experience group consisted of 37 instructors who had
more than 10 years of total experience in teaching. The results
are demonstrated in the table below.
As it is shown on Table 2 above, the differences between the
emotions of the two groups were calculated through an independent
sample t-test. Based on the findings, it was divulged
that instructors in both groups did not significantly differ in their
emotions regarding anger, fear, sadness and love. The
only significant difference between low and high experience instructors regarding their emotions was joy (t(64)= -2.34,
p<.05). The high experience group of instructors (M=4.54,
SD=.40) reported higher levels of joy when compared to low
experience group of teachers (M=4.18, SD=.89).
Click Here to Zoom
|Table 2: The Effect of Years of Experience on the Feelings of ELPP
In brief, the EFL teachers in ELPPs were examined depending
on their years of experiences and it is evident from the findings
that years of experience is a significant factor creating a difference
on the emotions of instructors. In addition, it is disclosed
that if they have 10 or more than 10 years of experience, they
feel more amount of joy in their occupation, which seems to
be associated with the advantages of seeing the next generation
make progress and shape thanks to them.
B. The Perceptions of EFL Instructors Leading to Change in
their Emotional Labour
As for the fourth research question of this study concerning the
perceptions of the participating instructors leading to change
in their emotional labour, the data came from their reflections.
The qualitative findings were categorized under three categories;
student-related, instructor-related, and institution related
factors which are presented in the section below.
I. Student related factors. ELPP instructors emotions are related
both positively and negatively to the mutual interactions
with their students. Moreover, student-related factors are the
most effective criteria for shaping instructors emotions, as
the frequency of comments related to learners engagement,
motivation, and happiness are higher than the other factors on
reflections. The following excerpts show how the factors affect
] I generally enjoy being in class, especially when my relationship
with my students is good. In fact, sometimes being in
class can be like an escape from the real world. I try to have as
much fun as possible, and this usually makes the students happy.
If they are happy, I am happy (Instructor, Reflection data).
] Willingness and unwillingness of my students, their motivational
levels, positive and negative results of my efforts, emotional
and cultural maturity of my students, and getting on well
with the students are key factors (Instructor, Reflection data).
As well as positive emotions related to their students, instructors
also mentioned the times when they felt negatively due to
the reasons deriving from their learners:
] The educational and cultural background of my students
make me feel really negative these days (Instructor, Reflection
] I feel frustrated when I see the learners lack in critical
thinking and autonomy, as well as their addiction to their
mobile phones (Instructor, Reflection data).
Based on the quantity and the quality of the reflections mentioned
about the students, it is seen that instructors emotions
and emotional well-being is determined by the relationship
with their students. This relationship is shaped mutually and
it can be both positive and negative. Lastly, students attitudes
towards learning and to their instructors, respect, participation and having a good connection are the main factors influencing
the way instructors feel and teach.
II. Instructor related factors. Instructors emotions and emotional
well-being depend heavily on their learners, however, as
well as student-related factors, there are also instructor related
factors affecting their emotions and emotional well-being. The
following statements display the instructors reflections about
themselves and how their private lives and personal issues
have an impact on their emotions:
] Spending my classroom management time effectively is
important...rather than disciplining, Id like to be connecting
and enhancing the classroom experience (Instructor, Reflection
] As well as motivation of my students, the most important
another factor affecting my well-being is whether I am wellplanned
or not (Instructor, Reflection data).
To conclude, instructor related factors on the emotions and
emotional well-being of instructors themselves are associated
with some factors and these factors are found to be mainly
related to their own teaching methodologies, feeling of being
sufficient and private lives.
III. Institution related factors. As for the factors modifying
instructors emotions and emotional well-being, the places
where they are working has a great impact on them. Although
they do not have the priority, these institutional factors are
associated with financial issues or colleagues. The following
comments show how institutions shape instructors emotions
and what factors are critical.
] Intellectual capacity of students and colleagues in general
are essential factors for me (Instructor, Reflection data).
] A positive, friendly atmosphere and the salary are my main
criteria (Instructor, Reflection data).
To clarify the findings associated with the institutions, it can
be seen that financial issues and a positive working environment
and colleagues are also key factors defining instructors
In brief, when all types of factors are examined, it is evident
that student related factors are generally the ones that causes
positive emotions to emerge whereas negative emotions are
caused by factors related to the private lives of instructors.
Besides, it can ben also concluded that institution related
factors are associated positively with work environment, and
negatively with financial issues.
The main purpose of this study was to investigate the emotional
well-being (positive and negative emotions) of the instructors,
to explore to what extent year of experience affects their emotions,
and lastly, to find out the reflections of the participating
instructors leading to change in their emotions. In line with
these purposes, data for this mixed method study came from
quantitative and qualitative tools. This section initially discusses
the results of the study including each research question.
To begin with, the first research question attempted to
investigate the emotional well-being (positive and negative
emotions) of the EFL instructors working in ELPPs through the
Teacher Emotion Inventory (TEI) scale and reflective essays.
Based on the ratings and perceptions of the instructors, the
analysis showed that the majority of the emotions were rated
above average by the participants, which showed that one
of the emotions was the most common emotion felt by the
instructors. Specifically, the emotions examined in the study
were sorted from the most to the least experienced ones as
follows: joy, anger, love, sadness, and fear.
The findings revealed that joy was the most experienced
emotion among ELPP instructors and it was related to instructors
teaching efficiency and the relationship with their colleagues
and students, and students motivation. Moreover,
in the study conducted by Chen (2016), it was also found as
the most frequently experienced emotion. Similarly, in a study
by Hagenauer and Volet (2014), it was shown that instructors
feeling of joy increases when the learners show interest and
are motivated to complete their assignment and tasks.
As the second most commonly felt emotion, anger was not
related to instructors relationship with their learners. It was
mostly associated with external factors, such as social, institutional
and financial problems. In line with these, Sutton and
Wheatley (2003) claimed that irresponsible parents, unhelpful
colleagues and being tired in general affect instructors emotions
As for the third mostly felt emotion, love was experienced
in the form of being respected by the society, seeing how the
next generations grow up, and having a stable job. However,
financial issues were not related to being an instructor and
feeling love. Sutton and Wheatley (2003) also say that excitement
and pride are positively correlated with seeing learners
improvement over the years or by hearing from former students.
Moreover, love was followed by the emotion sadness and
the findings were parallel with not being appreciated for their
efforts and having issues with their learners. As Hagenauer
and Volet (2014) stated in their study, unwillingness and lack of
engagement are some of the elements related to the causes of
negative emotions in instructors.
As the least experienced emotion, fear was related to
instructors feeling themselves not sufficient enough for their
learners and at the same time feeling worried for them in case
they do not take responsibility for their own achievement.
In brief, when the instructors emotions are investigated in
depth, it was clear from the results that there was a significant
difference among joy and the other emotions. Thats to say,
instructors in ELPPs attached a lot of importance to their feeling
of joy more than to other emotions and they mostly felt
happy about their occupations. Also, it was evident from the
reflections that instructors mostly mentioned what could help
them enjoy and feel motivated more in their teaching.
Furthermore, the second research question of this study aimed
to find out the effect of years of teaching experience on ELPP
instructors emotions. As it is also expressed by Hargreaves
(2005) emotions are related to the years of experience in the
field. In this study, to achieve this aim, instructors were divided
into two groups as high (>10 years) and low (<10years) experienced
and their emotions were compared through an independent
sample t-test. At the end of the analysis, the statistical significant
difference found between high experienced group of
instructors and low experienced group of instructors was only
for the emotion joy regarding their occupation. Although
most of the instructors expressed their opinions related to
their positive emotions in depth, high experienced group of
instructors specifically felt more joy than the others.
In addition, the findings are in line with other studies
(Nikoopour, Farsani, Tajbakhsh, & Kiyaie, 2012; Tabatabaei &
Franzmehr, 2015) conducted in the field and it was also found
that years of experience is positively correlated with high emotional
intelligence, which was also related to job satisfaction
of the teachers. Moreover, in a study conducted in Turkey by
Çubukçu (2013), the relation between young and experienced
instructors emotions was examined and it was revealed that
young instructors tend to express more negative emotions
whereas experienced ones shared mostly positive feelings. In
line with the findings from the reflections of this study, the feelings
mentioned in Çubukçus study (2013) were also associated
with the learners being on task, fulfilling their responsibilities,
and showing motivation.
Furthermore, in some studies (Sarı, 2005; Gürsel, Sünbül, &
Sarı, 2002), it was disclosed that more experienced groups of
instructors feel the sense of personal accomplishment more
than young instructors and this naturally enables them to feel
more pleasant towards their occupation.
To summarize, it is assumed that the more experienced the
instructors are, the more joy they experience in their occupation.
It might be due to both the higher amount of time
they spend with the students, and seeing the results of their
endeavours over time. Therefore, it is thought that years of
experience makes a positive contribution to instructors emotions
and emotional well-being.
Finally, the last question of this study focused on the perceptions
of the participating instructors leading to change in their
emotions. To answer this question, the participants were asked
to share their beliefs and opinions about the factors affecting
their emotions and emotional well-being. The data was gathered
from the reflection questions which allowed instructors
to express themselves freely. The findings revealed that the
instructors emotions were affected by three major factors;
student-related, instructor-related and institution-related factors.
Specifically, student-related factors were based upon the relationship
between the instructors and students. The instructors
mostly attributed their well-being to their learners happiness
in class, willingness to learn, amount of dedication and motivation
they show in class. As Houser & Waldbuesser (2017) also claimed, both the learners and the instructors get benefit from
a favourable class atmosphere. In addition, instructors mentioned
that critical thinking, autonomy development, responsibility
taking, and showing respect are other side factors leading
to change in their well-being and emotions in teaching.
Secondly, instructor-related factors are the second most effective
criteria causing a change on the well-being and emotions
of instructors. When the reflections of the instructors were
considered, instructors teaching efficiency, family issues, the
life standards they have, and personal well-being surpassed the
other factors. To put it another way, the findings were echoed
in the study conducted by Day and Qing (2009) and it is seen
that keeping a heathy state of mind and personal well-being
are crucial factors.
Last but not least, institution-related factors were grounded in
the relationship with colleagues, and the atmosphere of the
work environment as well as financial issues. Instructors often
mentioned how their work environment needs to be friendly
and supportive in addition to appreciation and the salary they
get from their institutions. As stated by Wills (2009), the work
environment has a huge impact on influencing instructors
To wrap up, as mentioned by Bakker (2005), emotions are
contagious and the more teachers enjoy their work environment,
the more they feel motivated during their lesson
planning and teaching. Also, instructors motivation is directly
connected with students engagement and when the learners
are engaged, instructors overcome the obstacles easily when
encountered (Day & Qing, 2009). Regarding the factors, it can
be indicated that all the factors mentioned above are linked to
each other in an inseparable way.
The present study has some limitations to be taken into consideration.
First of all, this study was only conducted with the participation
of ELPP instructors in private universities in İstanbul.
In other words, the results may not be generalized to the other
contexts and settings within or outside Turkey. To obtain more
generalizable findings, another nation-wide follow-up study
could be conducted with more participants from different universities
(both state and private) so that the results could be
generalized and the study would not have a limited external
validity. This could also provide an opportunity to administer
a comparative study whether the emotions of ELPP instructors
working in private and state universities show variation. In
addition, this study included only ELPP instructors; however,
a follow up study could be carried out by including language
learners and the program coordinators as well in order to find
out their perceptions on their own emotions and emotional
well-being. Despite these limitations, this study is still expected
to contribute to the growing body of research on the emotions
of instructors in language teaching.
Besides its limitations, this study offers some recommendations
for further research. To begin with, this study was carried
out in a limited time period and at the beginning of the academic year. However, it can be assumed that timing of the data
collection may have an effect on the results of the study. In this
sense, instructors may experience different emotions towards
the end of the academic year. Therefore, a further study could
be conducted for a longer time period or throughout the year
to find out whether the sorting of emotions show variety
among each other and the timing of the data collection have
In summary, the findings of this study offer empirical data
about teacher emotions which will in turn provide useful
implications for regulating teacher emotions in educational
contexts. The study will also contribute to the existing literature
concerning teaching development through involving
emotive dimensions. It will also help to understand emotions
triggered by vulnerability which may constitute an opportunity
for teachers to educate in a way that really makes a difference
to teacher effectiveness (Day et al., 2007; Kelchtermans, 2005,
2011). Emotions have great potential to strengthen not only
interpersonal relationships experienced in the classroom and
broader contexts, but also create opportunities for learning
and teaching in various situations (Bahia et al., 2013).
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